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AuthorTopic: Origin Aryan Race 1888  (Read 8441 times)

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Offline PrometheusTopic starter

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Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« Reply #30 on: June 15, 2019, 09:43:59 PM »

There remains the probable future of the Aryans in Asia
to pass in review. Here we find almost everywhere the same
determined Aryan advance. During the last century the
Aryan empire in Asia has been very greatly increased in
dimensions. Nearly every trace of non-Aryan rule has
been swept from India. Burmali promises to become an
English province. The eastern coast of Indo-Cliina is
rapidly becoming a French one. If we may judge from
past history, Siam, the only province of that region which


yet fully retains its independence, will eventually fall under
Aryan control. Persia, after being successively overrun
by Arab, Turk, and Mongol, is to-day mainly Aryan in
the race-characteristics of its civilized inhabitants. The
Afghans and Belooches are principally Aryan. The whole
of Asia to the north of the regions here mentioned, with
the exception of the Chinese empire, is to-day under Rus-
sian rule, and becoming rapidly overrun by Russian mer-
chants and colonists. That a very general race-mingling
will eventually take place throughout this wide region is
probable. The distinctive Mongolian features and mental
conditions will become modified, and there can be little
doubt that the Slavonic type of language will gradually
crush out the less-cultured tongues of the region named.

In southwestern Asia there remain the Semites of the
desert region and the Turks of Syria and Asia Minor.
The latter would to-day be under Russian rule but for the
jealousy of Europe. As a race they are becoming more
and more assimilated to the Aryans, and their race-dis-
tinction promises completely to die out in the near future.
In regard to government and civilization, they must accept
the Aryan conditions, or fall under Aryan control. There
is no other alternative possible.

If we look, then, over the whole world of the future, it
is to behold the almost certain dominance of the Aryan
type of mankind over every region except two, which alone
have held and promise to hold their own. These are the
regions of Arabia, and China and Japan. In these por-
tions alone of the whole earth do we find a national
energy and the existence of conditions that seem likely to
repel the Aryan advance. T\re may briefly glance at the
possible future of man in these two regions.


Since history began, Arabia has remained in an almost
unchanged condition. Militant civilization has raged for
thousands of years in the surrounding regions, but Arabia
has lain secure behind her deserts. Kingdoms and em-
pires have risen and fallen everywhere around this silent
peninsula; yet the waves of war have broken in baflled
fury upon its shores. It has poured out its hordes to
conquer the civilized world, but these have brought back
no civilization to its oases. It is to-day what it was three
thousand years ago, — a land defying alike the sword and
the habits of the civilized world. The Egyptian, the
Mongol, the Turk, and the Aryan have alike retired baffled
from its borders and left it to. its self-satisfied sleep of
barbarism. Is this to be the story of the far future as it
has been of the far past? Shall civilization never pen-
etrate the Arabian desert, and Aiyan rule and Aiyan
commerce stand forever checked at the edge of its deadly
wall of sand?

Hardly so. Modern civilization has resources which
even the desert cannot withstand. A plan to conquer the
desert has already been tried in the Soudan, and a similar
one in Algeria. The railroad and the water-pipe may ac-
complish that task in which all the armies of the past
signally failed. The camel, the ship of the desert, cannot
compete with the iron horse, and it is among the probabili-
ties’of the future that commerce will thus penetrate to the
interior of Arabia, and rouse that sleeping land to a vital
activity it has never known. Civilization can scarcely fail
to make its way into the Arabian oases with their enter-
prising populations, Aryan influence to awaken the active-
minded Arabs to a realization of the wealth which lies
undeveloped around them, and the oldest of known lands


to join the grand movement of mankind toward the en-
lightenment of the future. Civilization must and wdll
prevail over every land which barbarism now holds in its
drowsy grasp, and the deserts of the world, which have so
long defied its march, may yet become the slaves of the
railroad and the water-pipe.

In regard to China and Japan we have before us but
a question of time. The strong practical sense of their
people has been abundantly demonstrated, and they need
but be made clearly to perceive the advantages of Aryan
methods and habits to adopt them eagerly. Japan has
already realized this fact, and is introducing the conditions
of Western enlightenment with a rapidity that is one of the
most remarkable phenomena in the history of mankind.
Such is not the case with the Chinese. Their long con-
servatism and their high opinion of their intellectual and
industrial superiority have hindered them from fully con-
sidering the advantages possessed by the “outside barba-
rians.” Yet such a state of affairs cannot persist. The
Chinese have the same practical sense as the Japanese ;
and though their acceptance of the conditions of European
civilization may be a slower, it will be as sure a process.
Thought has never been asleep in that old land. It has
simply been moving in the unchanging round of the tread-
mill. If it once escapes into the broader air, the stagnant
conditions of Chinese civilization must give way before it,
and new laws, new industries, and new ideas make their
way into that realm of primitive thought.

We are here concerned with the two peoples of mankind
who are least likely to fall under Aryan domination. Were
they to continue dormant, they could scarcely avoid this
fate. But they are not continuing dormant, and the prob-


ability is that, ere many years have passed, both China and
Japan will be in a condition to defy Aryan conquest. As
they become open to Aryan ideas, however, they will be-
come more and more open to Aryan settlement, and an
enlivening influence of fresh thought and fresh blood may
thus penetrate to the very central citadel of Mongolian
civilization. 'Work and thought together cannot fail to
bring the antique realm of China into line with the modern
and energetic nations of the Aryan West.

When this condition is realized, the commercial activity

of the Aryans will undoubtedly have a rival. The Chinese

are already actively commercial, and have established

themselves as merchants upon many quarters of the Pacific

region. Their migratory activity is also considerable. In

the future we may look forward to a more vigorous contest

between Chinese and Aryans in both these particulars.

But it is not likely to grow very active until after the

Aryans have become firmly established in every quarter of

the globe. The awakening of China must be too late to

give her any large share of the prize of commercial wealth

and of dominion over new lands. Where the Arvan has


firmly set his foot the Chinaman can never drive him out.
Nor need we look upon such a probable future activity of
the Chinese race as the misfortune which Chinese emigra-
tion appears to us to-day. The Chinaman of the future
will undoubtedly be a higher order of being than the China-
man of the present. He cannot but have new ideas, new
hopes, new desires, and new habits. Into his dull prac-
ticality some higher degree of the imaginative and
emotional must flow from connection and perhaps race-
mingling with the Aryan type of man. It will un-
doubtedly be a slow process to lift the Chinaman from



the slough of dead thought in which he has so long lain.
Yet we are dealing here with the far future ; and to an
industrious, practical, and thinking people everything is

Such are some rapid conclusions as to the possible future
relations of human races and the general conditions of
mankind. Doubtless they may prove in many respects
erroneous, and influences which we cannot yet foresee may
arise to vary and control the movements and mingliugs of
mankind. Yet in the past, in despite of all seemingly
special and voluntary influences which have affected the
course of human development, the general and involuntary
have held their own. The thinking and persistently enter-
prising race of Aryans has moved steadily forward toward
dominion in both the physical and the mental empire of the
world. Starting in a narrow corner of the earth, probably
on the border-line of Europe and Asia, it has spread un-
ceasingly in all directions. The contest has been a long
and bitter one. At times the impulsive force of alien
races has checked and turned back the Aiyan march.
Yet ever the Aryan force has triumphed over these ob-
stacles, and the march has been resumed. It is still going
on with undiminished energy, and it will hardty come to a
halt until it has reached the termination above indicated.

The march inward has been as persistent and energetic
as the march outward. The kingdom of the mind has
been invaded as vigorously as the kingdom of the earth.
And the conquests in this direction have been as important
as those achieved over alien man and over the opposing
conditions of Nature. In this direction, indeed, human
progress promises to go on with undiminished energy
after the earthly domain is fully occupied, and physical


expansion is definitely checked. The mental empire is a
boundless one. Man may lay a girdle around the earth,
but the universe stretches beyond the utmost human grasp.
The kingdom of knowledge has already yielded many
valuable prizes to the intellectual enterprise of Aryan man,
yet it is rich with countless stores of wealth, and in this
domain there is room for endless endeavor. Thought need
not fear any exhaustion of the world which it has set out
to conquer.

If the general conditions displayed at the earliest discov-
erable era of the Aryan race have manifested themselves
persistently till the present time, the same may be declared
in a measure of the more special conditions. The devel-
opment of man has taken place under the force of the in-
herent conditions of his physical and mental nature, and
no matter how the circumstances of history might have
varied, the final result could scarcely have been different
from what we find it. We have endeavored to point out in
preceding sections that the primitive evolution of man led
inevitably to certain political relations, there named the
patriarchal and the democratic. Of these the latter was
the highest in grade, and directly developed, in ancient
Arya, from a preceding patriarchal condition. We find
this stage clearly reached nowhere else among primitive
mankind, though it was closely approached in the Ameri-
can Indian organization, whose early condition strikingly
resembled that of the Aryans.

These two conditions of barbarian organization have
worked themselves out to their ultimate in a very interest-
ing manner. All the early empires arose under patriarch-
al influences and became absolute despotisms. Of these
China is the only one that yet persists from archaic times,


though recent kingdoms of the same type have grown up
under Mongolian influence in Persia, Turkey, and Russia.
All the modern Aryan kingdoms outside of Russia and
Persia are more or less democratic, and possess that primi-
tive feature of ancient Ary a, the popular assembly. Pop-
ular representation — a mouthpiece of the people in the
government — is the stronghold of democracy; and to
this the Aryans alone, of all the races of mankind, have
ever firmly held.

It is remarkable how the primitive Aryan principle of
organization has retained its force through all the centuries
of war and attempted despotism, and how clearly it has
established itself in the móst advanced modern govern-
ment. Efforts numberless have been made to overthrow
it. Popular representation has been prevented, despotism
established, and the aid of religious autocracy brought in
to hold captive the minds of men. In Russia the ancient
democratic institutions have been completely overthrown,
as a result of the Mongol conquest, and replaced by a
patriarchal despotism. l"et these efforts have everywhere
failed. Even in Russia the democratic Aryan spirit is
rising in a wave that no despotism can long withstand. In
Germany the recent effort to establish paternal rule is
an evident failure, and must soon succumb to the peaceful
rebellion of the people. In France monarchy has van-
ished. In England it exists only on sufferance of the rep-
resentatives of the people. But in America alone can the
ancient Aryan principle be said to have fully declared
itself, and the government of the people by the people to
have become permanently established.

America may be particularly referred to from the in-
teresting lesson of human development it displays. It


offers a remarkable testimony to the action of natural law-
in human progress, and the inevitable outworking of con-
ditions in spite of every opposing effort or influence. In
the government of the United States we possess the direct
outcome of the government of ancient Ary a, an unfold-
ment of the governing principle that grew up naturally
among our remote ancestors, with as little variation in
method as if it had arisen without a single opposing effort.
It is the principle of decentralization in government as
opposed to that of centralization. There are but two final
types of government which could possibly arise, no matter
how many intermediate experiments were made. These
are the centralized and the decentralized, the patriarchal
and the democratic. To the persistence of the former it
is necessary that the ruler shall be at once political and
religious despot. He must sway the minds of his people,
or he will gradually lose his absolute control over their
bodies. In China alone does this condition fully exist,
and to it is due the long persistence of the Chinese form
of government. In all the Aryan despotisms of to-day
the autocratic rule can only persist during the continued
ignorance of the people. In none of them is the emperor
a spiritual potentate. With the awaking of general intel-
ligence free government must come.

The Aryan principle of government is that of decentral-
ization. And as no Aryan political ruler has ever suc-
ceeded in becoming the acknowledged religious head of his
people, every effort at despotic centralization has failed or
must fail. Local self-government was the principle of rule
in ancient Arya, and it is the principle in modern America.
There the family was the unit of the government. With
its domestic relations no official dared interfere. The vil-


lage had its governmental organization for the control of
the external relations of its families, under the rule of the
people. The later institution of the tribe had to do merely
with the external relations of the villages ; it could not
meddle with their internal affairs.

As we have said, this principle has been remarkably per-
sistent. It unfolded with hardly a check in Greece. In
the Aryan village two relations of organization existed,
— the family and the territorial. In Greece the former of
these first declared itself, and Greek political societ.y
became divided into the family, the gens, the tribe, and
the State. The family idea was the ruling principle of
organization. It proved, however, in the development
of civilization, to be unsuited to the needs of an ad-
vanced government, and it was replaced by the territorial
idea. This gave rise to the rigidly democratic government
of later Attica. It was composed of successive self-gov-
erning units, ranging downward through State, tribe, town-
ship, and family, while the people held absolute control
alike of their private and their public interests. At a later
date the growth of political wisdom carried this principle
one step farther forward, and a league or confederacy of
Grecian States was formed. Unfortunately this early out-
growth of the Aryan principle was possible in city life
alone. Country life and country thought moved more
slowly, and the wrorld had to await, during two thousand
years of anarchy and misgovernment, the establishment of
popular government over city and country alike.

In the United States of America the Grecian com-
monwealth has come again to life, and the vital Aryan
principle has risen to supremac}7. AYe have here, in a
great nation, almost an exact counterpart of the small


Grecian confederacy. The family still exists as the unit
element, though no longer as a despotism. Then come
successively the ward or the borough, the city or the
township, and the county. Over these extends the State,
and over all, the confederacy or United States. In each
and all of these the voice of the people is the governing
element. And in each, self-control of all its internal
interests is, or is in steady process of becoming, the
admitted principle. It is the law of decentralization car-
ried to its ultimate, each of the successively larger
units of the government having control of the interests
which affect it as a whole, but having no right to meddle
with interests that affect solely the population of any of
the minor units.

Such is the highest condition of political organization yet
reached bv mankind. It is in the direct line of natural
political evolution. And this evolution has certainly not
reached its ultimate. It must in the future go on to the
formation of yet larger units, confederacies of confedera-
cies, until finally the whole of mankind shall become one
great republic, all general affairs being controlled by a par-
liament of the nations, and popular self-government being
everywhere the rule.

This may seem somewhat visionary. Yet Nature is not
visionary, and Nature has declared, in a continuous course
of events, reaching over thousands of years, that there is
but one true line of political evolution. Natural law may
be temporarily set aside, but it cannot be permanently ab-
rogated. It may be hundreds, but can hardly be thou-
sands of years before the finale is reached; yet however
long it may take, but one end can come, — that of the
confederacy of mankind. The type of government that

Offline PrometheusTopic starter

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Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« Reply #31 on: June 15, 2019, 09:45:24 PM »


naturally arose in the village of ancient Arya must be
the final type of government of the world.

One highly important result must attend this ultimate
condition, — namely, the abolition of war; for the basic
principle of republican government is that of the yielding
of private in favor of general interests, and the submission
of all hostile questions to the arbitrament of courts and
parliaments. Abundant questions rise in America which
might result in war, were not this more rational method
for the settlement of disputes in satisfactory operation.
In several minor and in one great instance in American
history an appeal has been made from the decision of the
people to that of the sword. But with every such effort
the principle of rule by law and by the ballot has become
more firmly established, and admission of this principle
is becoming more and more general as time goes on.

Unfortunately, in the world at large no such method
exists for arranging the relations of states, and many wars
have arisen over disputes which could satisfactorily have
been settled by a congress. This is being more and more
clearly recognized in Europe, and a partial and unacknowl-
edged confederacy of the European States may be said to
exist already. But the only distinct and declared avoid-
ance of war by parliamentary action was that of the Ala-
bama Commission, which satisfactorily settled a dispute
which otherwise might have resulted in a ruinous war
between America and England. This principle of con-
federacy and parliamentary action for the decision of in-
ternational questions is young as yet, but it is grow-
ing. One final result alone can come from it, — a general
confederacy of the nations, becoming continually closer,
must arise, and war must die out. For the time will


inevitably come when the great body of confederated na-
tions will take the dragon of war by the throat and crush
the last remains of life out of its detestable body. We
can dimly see in the far future a period when war vTill not
be permitted, when the great compound of civilized na-
tions will sternly forbid this irrational, ruinous, and terrible
method of settling national disputes, and will not look
quietly on at the destruction of human life and of the re-
sults of human industry, or the wasteful diversion of in-
dustry to the manufacture of instruments of devastation.
When that age comes, all hostile disputants will be forced
to submit their questions to parliamentary arbitration, and
to abide by the result as individuals submit to-day to the
decision of courts of law. All civilized men and na-
tions of the far future will doubtless deem it utter madness
to seek to settle a dispute or reach the solution of an ar-
gument by killing one another, and will be more likely to
shut up the wTarrior in an insane asylum than to put a
sword in his hand and suffer him to run amuck like a
frantic Malay swordsman through the swarming hosts of
industry. Such we may with some assurance look forward
to as the finale of Aryan political development.

Religiously the antique Aryan principle has similarly
declared itself. Religious decentralization was the con-
dition of worship in ancient Arya, and this condition has
reappeared in modern America. The right of private
thought and private opinion has become fully established
after a hard battle with the principle of religious autoc-
racy, and to-day every man in America is privileged to
be his own priest, and to think and 'worship as he will,
irrespective of any voice of authority.

In moral development the Aryan nations are steadily


progressing. The code of Christ is the accepted code in
nearly all Aryan lands. It is not only the highest code
ever promulgated, but it is impossible to conceive of a
superior rule of moral conduct. At its basis lies the
principle of universal human sympathy, — that of interest
in and activity for the good of others, without thought of
self-advantage. Nowhere else does so elevated a code
of morals exist, for in every other code the hope of re-
ward is held out as an inducement to the performance of
good acts. The idea is a low one, and it has yielded low
results. The idea of unselfish benevolence, and of
a practical acceptance of the dogma of the universal
brotherhood of mankind, is a high one, and it is yielding
steadily higher results. Aryan benevolence is loftier in
its g^ade and far less contracted in its out-reach than
that of any other race of mankind; and Aryan moral
belief and action reach far above those displayed by the
Confucian, Buddhistic, and Mohammedan sectaries.

Industrially the Aiyans have made a progress almost
infinitely be}Tond that of other races. The development of
the fruitfulness of the soil; the employment of the energies
of Nature to perform the labors of man ; the extensive in-
vention of labor-saving machinery; the unfoldment of the
scientific principles that underlie industrial operations, and
of the laws of political economy and finance, — are doing
and must continue to do much for the amelioration of
man. It is not with the sword that the Aryans will yet
conquer the earth, but with the plough and the tool of the
artisan. The Aryan may go out to conquer and possess ;
but it will be with peace, plenty, and prosperity in his
hand, and under his awakening touch the whole earth
shall yet “ bud and blossom as the rose.”


There is but one more matter at which we need glance
in conclusion. In original Arya the industrial organiza-
tion was communistic. Yet we must look upon this as but
a transitional state, a necessary stage in the evolution of
human institutions. In the savage period private property
had no existence beyond that of mere personal weapons,
clothing, and ornaments. In the pastoral period it had
little more, since the herds, which formed the wealth of
the people, were held for the good of all; there was no
personal property in lands, and household possessions were
of small value. In the village period, though the bulk of
the land was still common property, yet the house-lot, the
dwelling, and its contents were family possessions. The
idea of and the claim to private property has ever since
been growing, and has formed one of the most important
instigating elements in the development of mankind. This
idea has to-day become supreme; the only general com-
munism remaining is in government property, and the
principle of individualism is dominant alike in politics, re-
ligion, and industry. Such a progressive development of
individualism seems the natural process of human evolu-
tion. The most stagnant institution yet existing on the
earth is the communistic Aryan village. The progress of
mankind has yielded and been largely due to the estab-
lishment of the right to private property. Nor can we
believe that this right will ever be abrogated, and the
stream of human events turn and flow backward toward
its source. The final solution of the problem of property-
holding cannot yet be predicted, but it can scarcely be
that of complete communism or socialism. The wheels of
the world will cease to turn if ever individual enterprise
becomes useless to mankind.


Yet that individualism has attained too great a domi-
nance through the subversion of natural law by force,
fraud, and the power of position, may safely be declared.
Individualism has become autocratic over the kingdom of
industry, and Aryan blood will always revolt against au-
tocracy. In the world of the future some more equitable
distribution of the products of industry must and will be
made. The methods of this distribution no one can yet
declare ; but the revolt against the present inequitable con-
dition of affairs is general and threatening. This condition
is not the result of a natural evolution, but of that preva-
lence of war which long permitted force to triumph over
right, and which has transmitted to the present time, as
governing ideas of the world, many of the lessons learned
during the reign of the sword. The beginning of the em-
pire of peace seems now at hand, and the masses of mankind
are everywhere rising in rebellion against these force-in-
augurated ideas. When the people rise in earnest, false
conditions must give way. But it is a peaceful revolution
that is in progress, and the revolutions of peace are much
slower, though not less sure, than those of war. The final
result will in all probability be some condition intermediate
between the two extremes. On the one hand, inordinate
power and inordinate wealth must cease to exist and
oppress the masses of mankind. On the other hand, abso-
lute equality in station and possessions is incompatible
with a high state of civilization and progress. It belongs,
in the story of human development, to the savage stage of
existence, and has been steadily grown away from as man
has advanced in civilization. The inequalities of man in
physical and mental powers are of natural origin, and
must inevitably find some expression in the natural organi-


zation of society. They cannot fail to yield a certain in-
equality in wealth, position, and social relations. We can
no more suppress this outcome of natural conditions than
we can force the seeds of the oak, pine, and other forest
trees alike to produce blades of grass. Enforced equal-
ity is unnatural, in that it is opposed to the natural in-
equalities of the body and mind of man, and it could not
be maintained, though a hundred times enacted. And
the inevitable tendency of even its temporary prevalence
would be to check progress and endeavor, and to force
human society back toward that primitive stage in which
alone absolute communism is natural and possible. To
find complete equality in animal relations we must go to
those low forms of animal life in which there is no discov-
erable difference in powers and properties. The moment
differences in natural powers appear, differences in condi-
tion arise; and the whole tendency of animal evolution
has beeu toward a steadily increasing diversity of powers
and faculties, until to-day there exist greater differences
in this respect in the human race than at any previous
period in history. These mental and physical differences
cannot fail to yield social, political, and industrial diver-
sities, though laws by the score or by the thousand should
be enacted to suppress their natural influence upon human

But the existing and growing inequality in wealth and
position is equally out of consonance with the lessons of
Nature, since it is much in excess of that which exists in
human minds and bodies, and is in numerous cases not the
result of ability7, but of fraud, of special advantages in
the accumulation of wealth, or of an excessive develop-
ment of the principle of inheritance. This evil must be


cured. How, or by what medicine, it is not easy to de-
clare. No man has a natural right to a position in society
which his own powers have not enabled him to win, nor to
the possession of wealth, authority, or influence which is
excessively beyond that due to his native superiority of
intellect. That a greater equality in the distribution of
wealth than now exists will prevail in the future can
scarcely be questioned, in view of the growing determi-
nation of the masses of mankind to bring to an end the
present state of affairs. That the existing degree of
communism will develop until the great products of human
thought, industry, and art shall cease to be private prop-
erty, and become free to the public in libraries, museums,
and lecture-halls, is equally among the things to be desired
and expected. But that superior intellect shall cease to
win superior prizes in the “ natural selection” of society,
is a theory too averse to the teachings of Nature and the
evident principles and methods of social evolution ever to
come into practical realization in the history of mankind.

Aborigines of Europe and Asia, Gl,


Abraham, patriarchal position of, 115;
ancestral relation to Jews, 1G0.

Abyssinia ns, 17.

iEnotrians, 78.

Afghans, race-type of, 84.

Africa, English settlements in, 298;
Aryan advance in, 301, 315; Arab
advance, 303; probable future con-
dition, 313; race-mingling in Cen-
tral, 314; west-coast colonies, 314;
Congo region, 314; probable effect
on natives, 315; future race-rela-
tions, 31G.

Africans, increase of, in America, 311.

Agassiz on Indians and Negroes of
Brazil, 7, note.

Agglutinative languages, methods of,
198; where used, 198.

Agni, myth of, 144, note.

Agriculture, original localities of, 49.

Ahriman, original myth of, 222; con-
test with Ormuzd, 222; evil crea-
tions, 223.

Ahura Mazda, 222.

Alexandria, scientific schools of, 284.

Algiers, French province, 313; railroad
southward, 315.

Altmark, land-communism in the, 124.

America, Aryan settlements in, 297;
treatment of Indians, 305; decrease
of aborigines, 311; future state of
races, 312; democracy, 324, 325;
rule of law, 328; democracy in reli-
gion, 329; industrial development,

American languages, lack of abstrac-
tion in, 195, 197; word-compound-
ing, 196.

American races, imaginative faculty
in, 25.

American village system, 123, 126;
clan-organization compared with
Aryan, 172.

Americans, muscular energy of the
earlv, 275, 27G; rudimentary art,

Analysis in language, 203-208; modern
results of, 209.

Anaxagoras, idea of deity of, 241.

Ancestor-worship, 133-35; evidences
of, 137, 138.

Anglo-Saxons, deficiency of abstrac-
tion in language of, 93, 94; system
of law, 175; epic of Beowulf, 258.

Apollo, Cuma?an, statue of, 141.

Aquitani, character of the, 69.

Arabia, permanence of conditions in,
319; security against invasion, 319;
how commerce mav penetrate, 319.

Arabian empire, science in the, 284;
commerce, 28G, 287.

Arabians, poetry of the, 271; their
conquests, 294; driven from Spain,
295; migrations in Africa, 303.

Arabs, affinities of, to the Negro race-
type, 1G, 314.

Architecture, prehistoric European,
27G; Melanochroic, 27G, 277; Egyp-
tian, 277 ; Hindu, 278, 279; Greek,
279; Gothic, 280.

Aristotle, philosophy of, 241, 242;
founds science of observation, 283.


Art of the ancients, 278, 280; of the
moderns, 280, 281; of non-Aryans,

Arthur,, Welsh legends of, 202;
use of by Trouvères, 242.

Arya, ancient, no State religion in,
153; cradle of liberty, 15-4: devel-
opment of democracy. 187; method
of worship, 219; communism, 301.

Aryan, derivation of term, 90.

Aryan clan, comparison of, with
American, 172; religious freedom,
172, 173; democracy, 173; political
conditions, 174; common duties,
174; blood-revenge, 175; tribal com-
binations, 175 ; clan-council, 17G;
simplicity of organization, 170;
military system, 177; guilds, 177;
chieftainship, 17S, 179.

Aryan family, property of, 109; or-
ganization, 110; persistence, 111;
how composed, 135, 139; religious
system, 13G; symbolism of common
meal, 130.

Aryan languages, persistence of, 37;
loss of names for animals, 42; early
dialects, G1; verbal affinities, 90;
dictionary, 92; physical significance
of original words, 93; comparison
with Semitic, 200; outgrowth from
Mongolian, 201; analytic methods,
206; modern results of analysis, 207;
ancient synthetic complexity, 207;
rapid analysis in Middle Ages, 208;
growth of modern conditions, 209;
attempts to form sub-groups, 212.

Aryan literature, superiority of the,
243; development of epic poem, 243;
compared with non-Arvan, 2G9;
lyric poetry, 270, 271; high intel-
lectuality, 272.

Aryan migrations, effect of primitive,
230; energy, 290; early extension,
231: checks to. 231, 292; internal
movements, 232; conquest of Semi-
tic and Hamitie regions, 292; early
historical movements, 233; rever-
sion,' 293; loss of territory, 234;
expansion resumed, 295; results,
29G; commercial migration, 297;

America occupied, 297, 300; Pacific
islands and India, 298, 300; set e-
ments in Africa, 298; character of
modern, 297-99; extension, 300;
regions occupied, 300, 301; moral
effects, 304; beneficial influences,
303; effect on aborigines, 311; in
Africa, 313-15; moral development,
329, 330.

Aryan mythology, origin of the, 141;
development, 142; heaven-deities,
143; myths of the Vedas, 144.

Aryan philosophy, high character of
the, 233.

Aryan race, 1-5; migratory energy,
11; expanding tendency, 15; deriva-
tion, 16; mental fusion of sub-races,
2G,   218; intellectual comparison,

with yellow and black races, 27;
review of development, 27; linguis-
tic divisions, 28; original home,
30, 37, GO; languages, 32; Asiatic
theory of Aryan home, 38. 39; its
insufficiency, 39, 40, 42; European
theory, 41; argument from lan-
guage, 42; Peschel’s views, 42, 43;
other European theories, 43; climate
and habits, 43, 44 ; pastoral pursuits,
47, 48; change of habits, 49; devel-
opment, 51; the Caucasus as the
primitive seat, 51, 52; early condi-
tion, 57, 58; energy, 59; original
divisions, G4; sub-races, 92; influ-
ences controlling development, 215;
non-specialization, 21G; superiority
of intellect, 217.

Atyan religion, double system of, 132;
mythology, 132; ancestor-worship.
133, 134;* family rites, 135, 130;
burial-customs, 130; secrecy of house-
worship, 134, 138: clan-worship,
139-41; effect of migration on wor-
ship, 145.

Aryan village system, unfoldment of
the, 185.

Aryans, southern migration of the, 74;
developmental influences, 85; agri-
cultural migration, 85; race-min-
gling, 87; linguistic persistence, 87;
build no monuments, 89 ; their


record, 90; domesticated animals,
94; pastoral terms, 90; agricultural
customs, 95-97; trees and metals
known, 97; houses, 97; domestic
life, 98; family relations, 98, 99;
hunting customs, 99; navigation,
100; war, 100; knowledge and be-
liefs, 101; religion, 101; political
system, 102; later conditions, 104;
barbarism, 105 ; land-communism,
110; village group, 117; patriarch-
ism, 117; democracy, 118; land-
division, 118; family property, 118,
119; kinship, 139; religious history
of western division, 14G, 147; lack
of priestly authority in West, 150;
political evolution, 188; links of
affinity, 189; comparison of phi-
losophy with other races, 229; fer-
tility of imagination, 240, 200; epic
poetry, 247; comparative powers,
273; superior mental energy, 274,
277, 278; their art, 2S9, 281; science,
282-85: machinery, 285; commerce,
2SG, 287; moral standard, 287-89;
treatment of Indians, 304; results,
305; historical movements, 310; race-
fusions, 310; race-influence on Mon-
golians, 310; in Pacific islands, 317;
in Asia, 317, 31S; comparison with
the Chinese, 321; steady progress,
322; mental conquests, 322, 323;
review of political evolution, 323-

Asia, state of Aryan population in,
290; Russian conquests, 2D8 ; Aryan
advance, 301; Arvan population,
317, 318.