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About this site / Contest for the 12 (zodiac) goddess of the months !
« on: June 16, 2019, 11:43:40 PM »
Contest for the 12 (zodiac) goddess of the months !

We're looking for 12 goddesses, one for every month,(twelve signs of the zodiac) ,
SO girls between 18-26 approx, send your pics in unicolor bikini or nude, frontal, eyes(face) masked.
Pics will come in gallery for members to vote on.
Send pics and id (for checking your birthdate/sign and statement for approval showing pics and why you consider yourself that goddess to
Skin/hair color not important, because Mother Earth is everywhere!
Sign preferably in middle of sign, but members decide ;-)
All girls applying get a FREE FULL membership, so what's stopping you?!

Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:45:24 PM »


naturally arose in the village of ancient Arya must be
the final type of government of the world.

One highly important result must attend this ultimate
condition, — namely, the abolition of war; for the basic
principle of republican government is that of the yielding
of private in favor of general interests, and the submission
of all hostile questions to the arbitrament of courts and
parliaments. Abundant questions rise in America which
might result in war, were not this more rational method
for the settlement of disputes in satisfactory operation.
In several minor and in one great instance in American
history an appeal has been made from the decision of the
people to that of the sword. But with every such effort
the principle of rule by law and by the ballot has become
more firmly established, and admission of this principle
is becoming more and more general as time goes on.

Unfortunately, in the world at large no such method
exists for arranging the relations of states, and many wars
have arisen over disputes which could satisfactorily have
been settled by a congress. This is being more and more
clearly recognized in Europe, and a partial and unacknowl-
edged confederacy of the European States may be said to
exist already. But the only distinct and declared avoid-
ance of war by parliamentary action was that of the Ala-
bama Commission, which satisfactorily settled a dispute
which otherwise might have resulted in a ruinous war
between America and England. This principle of con-
federacy and parliamentary action for the decision of in-
ternational questions is young as yet, but it is grow-
ing. One final result alone can come from it, — a general
confederacy of the nations, becoming continually closer,
must arise, and war must die out. For the time will


inevitably come when the great body of confederated na-
tions will take the dragon of war by the throat and crush
the last remains of life out of its detestable body. We
can dimly see in the far future a period when war vTill not
be permitted, when the great compound of civilized na-
tions will sternly forbid this irrational, ruinous, and terrible
method of settling national disputes, and will not look
quietly on at the destruction of human life and of the re-
sults of human industry, or the wasteful diversion of in-
dustry to the manufacture of instruments of devastation.
When that age comes, all hostile disputants will be forced
to submit their questions to parliamentary arbitration, and
to abide by the result as individuals submit to-day to the
decision of courts of law. All civilized men and na-
tions of the far future will doubtless deem it utter madness
to seek to settle a dispute or reach the solution of an ar-
gument by killing one another, and will be more likely to
shut up the wTarrior in an insane asylum than to put a
sword in his hand and suffer him to run amuck like a
frantic Malay swordsman through the swarming hosts of
industry. Such we may with some assurance look forward
to as the finale of Aryan political development.

Religiously the antique Aryan principle has similarly
declared itself. Religious decentralization was the con-
dition of worship in ancient Arya, and this condition has
reappeared in modern America. The right of private
thought and private opinion has become fully established
after a hard battle with the principle of religious autoc-
racy, and to-day every man in America is privileged to
be his own priest, and to think and 'worship as he will,
irrespective of any voice of authority.

In moral development the Aryan nations are steadily


progressing. The code of Christ is the accepted code in
nearly all Aryan lands. It is not only the highest code
ever promulgated, but it is impossible to conceive of a
superior rule of moral conduct. At its basis lies the
principle of universal human sympathy, — that of interest
in and activity for the good of others, without thought of
self-advantage. Nowhere else does so elevated a code
of morals exist, for in every other code the hope of re-
ward is held out as an inducement to the performance of
good acts. The idea is a low one, and it has yielded low
results. The idea of unselfish benevolence, and of
a practical acceptance of the dogma of the universal
brotherhood of mankind, is a high one, and it is yielding
steadily higher results. Aryan benevolence is loftier in
its g^ade and far less contracted in its out-reach than
that of any other race of mankind; and Aryan moral
belief and action reach far above those displayed by the
Confucian, Buddhistic, and Mohammedan sectaries.

Industrially the Aiyans have made a progress almost
infinitely be}Tond that of other races. The development of
the fruitfulness of the soil; the employment of the energies
of Nature to perform the labors of man ; the extensive in-
vention of labor-saving machinery; the unfoldment of the
scientific principles that underlie industrial operations, and
of the laws of political economy and finance, — are doing
and must continue to do much for the amelioration of
man. It is not with the sword that the Aryans will yet
conquer the earth, but with the plough and the tool of the
artisan. The Aryan may go out to conquer and possess ;
but it will be with peace, plenty, and prosperity in his
hand, and under his awakening touch the whole earth
shall yet “ bud and blossom as the rose.”


There is but one more matter at which we need glance
in conclusion. In original Arya the industrial organiza-
tion was communistic. Yet we must look upon this as but
a transitional state, a necessary stage in the evolution of
human institutions. In the savage period private property
had no existence beyond that of mere personal weapons,
clothing, and ornaments. In the pastoral period it had
little more, since the herds, which formed the wealth of
the people, were held for the good of all; there was no
personal property in lands, and household possessions were
of small value. In the village period, though the bulk of
the land was still common property, yet the house-lot, the
dwelling, and its contents were family possessions. The
idea of and the claim to private property has ever since
been growing, and has formed one of the most important
instigating elements in the development of mankind. This
idea has to-day become supreme; the only general com-
munism remaining is in government property, and the
principle of individualism is dominant alike in politics, re-
ligion, and industry. Such a progressive development of
individualism seems the natural process of human evolu-
tion. The most stagnant institution yet existing on the
earth is the communistic Aryan village. The progress of
mankind has yielded and been largely due to the estab-
lishment of the right to private property. Nor can we
believe that this right will ever be abrogated, and the
stream of human events turn and flow backward toward
its source. The final solution of the problem of property-
holding cannot yet be predicted, but it can scarcely be
that of complete communism or socialism. The wheels of
the world will cease to turn if ever individual enterprise
becomes useless to mankind.


Yet that individualism has attained too great a domi-
nance through the subversion of natural law by force,
fraud, and the power of position, may safely be declared.
Individualism has become autocratic over the kingdom of
industry, and Aryan blood will always revolt against au-
tocracy. In the world of the future some more equitable
distribution of the products of industry must and will be
made. The methods of this distribution no one can yet
declare ; but the revolt against the present inequitable con-
dition of affairs is general and threatening. This condition
is not the result of a natural evolution, but of that preva-
lence of war which long permitted force to triumph over
right, and which has transmitted to the present time, as
governing ideas of the world, many of the lessons learned
during the reign of the sword. The beginning of the em-
pire of peace seems now at hand, and the masses of mankind
are everywhere rising in rebellion against these force-in-
augurated ideas. When the people rise in earnest, false
conditions must give way. But it is a peaceful revolution
that is in progress, and the revolutions of peace are much
slower, though not less sure, than those of war. The final
result will in all probability be some condition intermediate
between the two extremes. On the one hand, inordinate
power and inordinate wealth must cease to exist and
oppress the masses of mankind. On the other hand, abso-
lute equality in station and possessions is incompatible
with a high state of civilization and progress. It belongs,
in the story of human development, to the savage stage of
existence, and has been steadily grown away from as man
has advanced in civilization. The inequalities of man in
physical and mental powers are of natural origin, and
must inevitably find some expression in the natural organi-


zation of society. They cannot fail to yield a certain in-
equality in wealth, position, and social relations. We can
no more suppress this outcome of natural conditions than
we can force the seeds of the oak, pine, and other forest
trees alike to produce blades of grass. Enforced equal-
ity is unnatural, in that it is opposed to the natural in-
equalities of the body and mind of man, and it could not
be maintained, though a hundred times enacted. And
the inevitable tendency of even its temporary prevalence
would be to check progress and endeavor, and to force
human society back toward that primitive stage in which
alone absolute communism is natural and possible. To
find complete equality in animal relations we must go to
those low forms of animal life in which there is no discov-
erable difference in powers and properties. The moment
differences in natural powers appear, differences in condi-
tion arise; and the whole tendency of animal evolution
has beeu toward a steadily increasing diversity of powers
and faculties, until to-day there exist greater differences
in this respect in the human race than at any previous
period in history. These mental and physical differences
cannot fail to yield social, political, and industrial diver-
sities, though laws by the score or by the thousand should
be enacted to suppress their natural influence upon human

But the existing and growing inequality in wealth and
position is equally out of consonance with the lessons of
Nature, since it is much in excess of that which exists in
human minds and bodies, and is in numerous cases not the
result of ability7, but of fraud, of special advantages in
the accumulation of wealth, or of an excessive develop-
ment of the principle of inheritance. This evil must be


cured. How, or by what medicine, it is not easy to de-
clare. No man has a natural right to a position in society
which his own powers have not enabled him to win, nor to
the possession of wealth, authority, or influence which is
excessively beyond that due to his native superiority of
intellect. That a greater equality in the distribution of
wealth than now exists will prevail in the future can
scarcely be questioned, in view of the growing determi-
nation of the masses of mankind to bring to an end the
present state of affairs. That the existing degree of
communism will develop until the great products of human
thought, industry, and art shall cease to be private prop-
erty, and become free to the public in libraries, museums,
and lecture-halls, is equally among the things to be desired
and expected. But that superior intellect shall cease to
win superior prizes in the “ natural selection” of society,
is a theory too averse to the teachings of Nature and the
evident principles and methods of social evolution ever to
come into practical realization in the history of mankind.

Aborigines of Europe and Asia, Gl,


Abraham, patriarchal position of, 115;
ancestral relation to Jews, 1G0.

Abyssinia ns, 17.

iEnotrians, 78.

Afghans, race-type of, 84.

Africa, English settlements in, 298;
Aryan advance in, 301, 315; Arab
advance, 303; probable future con-
dition, 313; race-mingling in Cen-
tral, 314; west-coast colonies, 314;
Congo region, 314; probable effect
on natives, 315; future race-rela-
tions, 31G.

Africans, increase of, in America, 311.

Agassiz on Indians and Negroes of
Brazil, 7, note.

Agglutinative languages, methods of,
198; where used, 198.

Agni, myth of, 144, note.

Agriculture, original localities of, 49.

Ahriman, original myth of, 222; con-
test with Ormuzd, 222; evil crea-
tions, 223.

Ahura Mazda, 222.

Alexandria, scientific schools of, 284.

Algiers, French province, 313; railroad
southward, 315.

Altmark, land-communism in the, 124.

America, Aryan settlements in, 297;
treatment of Indians, 305; decrease
of aborigines, 311; future state of
races, 312; democracy, 324, 325;
rule of law, 328; democracy in reli-
gion, 329; industrial development,

American languages, lack of abstrac-
tion in, 195, 197; word-compound-
ing, 196.

American races, imaginative faculty
in, 25.

American village system, 123, 126;
clan-organization compared with
Aryan, 172.

Americans, muscular energy of the
earlv, 275, 27G; rudimentary art,

Analysis in language, 203-208; modern
results of, 209.

Anaxagoras, idea of deity of, 241.

Ancestor-worship, 133-35; evidences
of, 137, 138.

Anglo-Saxons, deficiency of abstrac-
tion in language of, 93, 94; system
of law, 175; epic of Beowulf, 258.

Apollo, Cuma?an, statue of, 141.

Aquitani, character of the, 69.

Arabia, permanence of conditions in,
319; security against invasion, 319;
how commerce mav penetrate, 319.

Arabian empire, science in the, 284;
commerce, 28G, 287.

Arabians, poetry of the, 271; their
conquests, 294; driven from Spain,
295; migrations in Africa, 303.

Arabs, affinities of, to the Negro race-
type, 1G, 314.

Architecture, prehistoric European,
27G; Melanochroic, 27G, 277; Egyp-
tian, 277 ; Hindu, 278, 279; Greek,
279; Gothic, 280.

Aristotle, philosophy of, 241, 242;
founds science of observation, 283.


Art of the ancients, 278, 280; of the
moderns, 280, 281; of non-Aryans,

Arthur,, Welsh legends of, 202;
use of by Trouvères, 242.

Arya, ancient, no State religion in,
153; cradle of liberty, 15-4: devel-
opment of democracy. 187; method
of worship, 219; communism, 301.

Aryan, derivation of term, 90.

Aryan clan, comparison of, with
American, 172; religious freedom,
172, 173; democracy, 173; political
conditions, 174; common duties,
174; blood-revenge, 175; tribal com-
binations, 175 ; clan-council, 17G;
simplicity of organization, 170;
military system, 177; guilds, 177;
chieftainship, 17S, 179.

Aryan family, property of, 109; or-
ganization, 110; persistence, 111;
how composed, 135, 139; religious
system, 13G; symbolism of common
meal, 130.

Aryan languages, persistence of, 37;
loss of names for animals, 42; early
dialects, G1; verbal affinities, 90;
dictionary, 92; physical significance
of original words, 93; comparison
with Semitic, 200; outgrowth from
Mongolian, 201; analytic methods,
206; modern results of analysis, 207;
ancient synthetic complexity, 207;
rapid analysis in Middle Ages, 208;
growth of modern conditions, 209;
attempts to form sub-groups, 212.

Aryan literature, superiority of the,
243; development of epic poem, 243;
compared with non-Arvan, 2G9;
lyric poetry, 270, 271; high intel-
lectuality, 272.

Aryan migrations, effect of primitive,
230; energy, 290; early extension,
231: checks to. 231, 292; internal
movements, 232; conquest of Semi-
tic and Hamitie regions, 292; early
historical movements, 233; rever-
sion,' 293; loss of territory, 234;
expansion resumed, 295; results,
29G; commercial migration, 297;

America occupied, 297, 300; Pacific
islands and India, 298, 300; set e-
ments in Africa, 298; character of
modern, 297-99; extension, 300;
regions occupied, 300, 301; moral
effects, 304; beneficial influences,
303; effect on aborigines, 311; in
Africa, 313-15; moral development,
329, 330.

Aryan mythology, origin of the, 141;
development, 142; heaven-deities,
143; myths of the Vedas, 144.

Aryan philosophy, high character of
the, 233.

Aryan race, 1-5; migratory energy,
11; expanding tendency, 15; deriva-
tion, 16; mental fusion of sub-races,
2G,   218; intellectual comparison,

with yellow and black races, 27;
review of development, 27; linguis-
tic divisions, 28; original home,
30, 37, GO; languages, 32; Asiatic
theory of Aryan home, 38. 39; its
insufficiency, 39, 40, 42; European
theory, 41; argument from lan-
guage, 42; Peschel’s views, 42, 43;
other European theories, 43; climate
and habits, 43, 44 ; pastoral pursuits,
47, 48; change of habits, 49; devel-
opment, 51; the Caucasus as the
primitive seat, 51, 52; early condi-
tion, 57, 58; energy, 59; original
divisions, G4; sub-races, 92; influ-
ences controlling development, 215;
non-specialization, 21G; superiority
of intellect, 217.

Atyan religion, double system of, 132;
mythology, 132; ancestor-worship.
133, 134;* family rites, 135, 130;
burial-customs, 130; secrecy of house-
worship, 134, 138: clan-worship,
139-41; effect of migration on wor-
ship, 145.

Aryan village system, unfoldment of
the, 185.

Aryans, southern migration of the, 74;
developmental influences, 85; agri-
cultural migration, 85; race-min-
gling, 87; linguistic persistence, 87;
build no monuments, 89 ; their


record, 90; domesticated animals,
94; pastoral terms, 90; agricultural
customs, 95-97; trees and metals
known, 97; houses, 97; domestic
life, 98; family relations, 98, 99;
hunting customs, 99; navigation,
100; war, 100; knowledge and be-
liefs, 101; religion, 101; political
system, 102; later conditions, 104;
barbarism, 105 ; land-communism,
110; village group, 117; patriarch-
ism, 117; democracy, 118; land-
division, 118; family property, 118,
119; kinship, 139; religious history
of western division, 14G, 147; lack
of priestly authority in West, 150;
political evolution, 188; links of
affinity, 189; comparison of phi-
losophy with other races, 229; fer-
tility of imagination, 240, 200; epic
poetry, 247; comparative powers,
273; superior mental energy, 274,
277, 278; their art, 2S9, 281; science,
282-85: machinery, 285; commerce,
2SG, 287; moral standard, 287-89;
treatment of Indians, 304; results,
305; historical movements, 310; race-
fusions, 310; race-influence on Mon-
golians, 310; in Pacific islands, 317;
in Asia, 317, 31S; comparison with
the Chinese, 321; steady progress,
322; mental conquests, 322, 323;
review of political evolution, 323-

Asia, state of Aryan population in,
290; Russian conquests, 2D8 ; Aryan
advance, 301; Arvan population,
317, 318.

Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:43:59 PM »

There remains the probable future of the Aryans in Asia
to pass in review. Here we find almost everywhere the same
determined Aryan advance. During the last century the
Aryan empire in Asia has been very greatly increased in
dimensions. Nearly every trace of non-Aryan rule has
been swept from India. Burmali promises to become an
English province. The eastern coast of Indo-Cliina is
rapidly becoming a French one. If we may judge from
past history, Siam, the only province of that region which


yet fully retains its independence, will eventually fall under
Aryan control. Persia, after being successively overrun
by Arab, Turk, and Mongol, is to-day mainly Aryan in
the race-characteristics of its civilized inhabitants. The
Afghans and Belooches are principally Aryan. The whole
of Asia to the north of the regions here mentioned, with
the exception of the Chinese empire, is to-day under Rus-
sian rule, and becoming rapidly overrun by Russian mer-
chants and colonists. That a very general race-mingling
will eventually take place throughout this wide region is
probable. The distinctive Mongolian features and mental
conditions will become modified, and there can be little
doubt that the Slavonic type of language will gradually
crush out the less-cultured tongues of the region named.

In southwestern Asia there remain the Semites of the
desert region and the Turks of Syria and Asia Minor.
The latter would to-day be under Russian rule but for the
jealousy of Europe. As a race they are becoming more
and more assimilated to the Aryans, and their race-dis-
tinction promises completely to die out in the near future.
In regard to government and civilization, they must accept
the Aryan conditions, or fall under Aryan control. There
is no other alternative possible.

If we look, then, over the whole world of the future, it
is to behold the almost certain dominance of the Aryan
type of mankind over every region except two, which alone
have held and promise to hold their own. These are the
regions of Arabia, and China and Japan. In these por-
tions alone of the whole earth do we find a national
energy and the existence of conditions that seem likely to
repel the Aryan advance. T\re may briefly glance at the
possible future of man in these two regions.


Since history began, Arabia has remained in an almost
unchanged condition. Militant civilization has raged for
thousands of years in the surrounding regions, but Arabia
has lain secure behind her deserts. Kingdoms and em-
pires have risen and fallen everywhere around this silent
peninsula; yet the waves of war have broken in baflled
fury upon its shores. It has poured out its hordes to
conquer the civilized world, but these have brought back
no civilization to its oases. It is to-day what it was three
thousand years ago, — a land defying alike the sword and
the habits of the civilized world. The Egyptian, the
Mongol, the Turk, and the Aryan have alike retired baffled
from its borders and left it to. its self-satisfied sleep of
barbarism. Is this to be the story of the far future as it
has been of the far past? Shall civilization never pen-
etrate the Arabian desert, and Aiyan rule and Aiyan
commerce stand forever checked at the edge of its deadly
wall of sand?

Hardly so. Modern civilization has resources which
even the desert cannot withstand. A plan to conquer the
desert has already been tried in the Soudan, and a similar
one in Algeria. The railroad and the water-pipe may ac-
complish that task in which all the armies of the past
signally failed. The camel, the ship of the desert, cannot
compete with the iron horse, and it is among the probabili-
ties’of the future that commerce will thus penetrate to the
interior of Arabia, and rouse that sleeping land to a vital
activity it has never known. Civilization can scarcely fail
to make its way into the Arabian oases with their enter-
prising populations, Aryan influence to awaken the active-
minded Arabs to a realization of the wealth which lies
undeveloped around them, and the oldest of known lands


to join the grand movement of mankind toward the en-
lightenment of the future. Civilization must and wdll
prevail over every land which barbarism now holds in its
drowsy grasp, and the deserts of the world, which have so
long defied its march, may yet become the slaves of the
railroad and the water-pipe.

In regard to China and Japan we have before us but
a question of time. The strong practical sense of their
people has been abundantly demonstrated, and they need
but be made clearly to perceive the advantages of Aryan
methods and habits to adopt them eagerly. Japan has
already realized this fact, and is introducing the conditions
of Western enlightenment with a rapidity that is one of the
most remarkable phenomena in the history of mankind.
Such is not the case with the Chinese. Their long con-
servatism and their high opinion of their intellectual and
industrial superiority have hindered them from fully con-
sidering the advantages possessed by the “outside barba-
rians.” Yet such a state of affairs cannot persist. The
Chinese have the same practical sense as the Japanese ;
and though their acceptance of the conditions of European
civilization may be a slower, it will be as sure a process.
Thought has never been asleep in that old land. It has
simply been moving in the unchanging round of the tread-
mill. If it once escapes into the broader air, the stagnant
conditions of Chinese civilization must give way before it,
and new laws, new industries, and new ideas make their
way into that realm of primitive thought.

We are here concerned with the two peoples of mankind
who are least likely to fall under Aryan domination. Were
they to continue dormant, they could scarcely avoid this
fate. But they are not continuing dormant, and the prob-


ability is that, ere many years have passed, both China and
Japan will be in a condition to defy Aryan conquest. As
they become open to Aryan ideas, however, they will be-
come more and more open to Aryan settlement, and an
enlivening influence of fresh thought and fresh blood may
thus penetrate to the very central citadel of Mongolian
civilization. 'Work and thought together cannot fail to
bring the antique realm of China into line with the modern
and energetic nations of the Aryan West.

When this condition is realized, the commercial activity

of the Aryans will undoubtedly have a rival. The Chinese

are already actively commercial, and have established

themselves as merchants upon many quarters of the Pacific

region. Their migratory activity is also considerable. In

the future we may look forward to a more vigorous contest

between Chinese and Aryans in both these particulars.

But it is not likely to grow very active until after the

Aryans have become firmly established in every quarter of

the globe. The awakening of China must be too late to

give her any large share of the prize of commercial wealth

and of dominion over new lands. Where the Arvan has


firmly set his foot the Chinaman can never drive him out.
Nor need we look upon such a probable future activity of
the Chinese race as the misfortune which Chinese emigra-
tion appears to us to-day. The Chinaman of the future
will undoubtedly be a higher order of being than the China-
man of the present. He cannot but have new ideas, new
hopes, new desires, and new habits. Into his dull prac-
ticality some higher degree of the imaginative and
emotional must flow from connection and perhaps race-
mingling with the Aryan type of man. It will un-
doubtedly be a slow process to lift the Chinaman from



the slough of dead thought in which he has so long lain.
Yet we are dealing here with the far future ; and to an
industrious, practical, and thinking people everything is

Such are some rapid conclusions as to the possible future
relations of human races and the general conditions of
mankind. Doubtless they may prove in many respects
erroneous, and influences which we cannot yet foresee may
arise to vary and control the movements and mingliugs of
mankind. Yet in the past, in despite of all seemingly
special and voluntary influences which have affected the
course of human development, the general and involuntary
have held their own. The thinking and persistently enter-
prising race of Aryans has moved steadily forward toward
dominion in both the physical and the mental empire of the
world. Starting in a narrow corner of the earth, probably
on the border-line of Europe and Asia, it has spread un-
ceasingly in all directions. The contest has been a long
and bitter one. At times the impulsive force of alien
races has checked and turned back the Aiyan march.
Yet ever the Aryan force has triumphed over these ob-
stacles, and the march has been resumed. It is still going
on with undiminished energy, and it will hardty come to a
halt until it has reached the termination above indicated.

The march inward has been as persistent and energetic
as the march outward. The kingdom of the mind has
been invaded as vigorously as the kingdom of the earth.
And the conquests in this direction have been as important
as those achieved over alien man and over the opposing
conditions of Nature. In this direction, indeed, human
progress promises to go on with undiminished energy
after the earthly domain is fully occupied, and physical


expansion is definitely checked. The mental empire is a
boundless one. Man may lay a girdle around the earth,
but the universe stretches beyond the utmost human grasp.
The kingdom of knowledge has already yielded many
valuable prizes to the intellectual enterprise of Aryan man,
yet it is rich with countless stores of wealth, and in this
domain there is room for endless endeavor. Thought need
not fear any exhaustion of the world which it has set out
to conquer.

If the general conditions displayed at the earliest discov-
erable era of the Aryan race have manifested themselves
persistently till the present time, the same may be declared
in a measure of the more special conditions. The devel-
opment of man has taken place under the force of the in-
herent conditions of his physical and mental nature, and
no matter how the circumstances of history might have
varied, the final result could scarcely have been different
from what we find it. We have endeavored to point out in
preceding sections that the primitive evolution of man led
inevitably to certain political relations, there named the
patriarchal and the democratic. Of these the latter was
the highest in grade, and directly developed, in ancient
Arya, from a preceding patriarchal condition. We find
this stage clearly reached nowhere else among primitive
mankind, though it was closely approached in the Ameri-
can Indian organization, whose early condition strikingly
resembled that of the Aryans.

These two conditions of barbarian organization have
worked themselves out to their ultimate in a very interest-
ing manner. All the early empires arose under patriarch-
al influences and became absolute despotisms. Of these
China is the only one that yet persists from archaic times,


though recent kingdoms of the same type have grown up
under Mongolian influence in Persia, Turkey, and Russia.
All the modern Aryan kingdoms outside of Russia and
Persia are more or less democratic, and possess that primi-
tive feature of ancient Ary a, the popular assembly. Pop-
ular representation — a mouthpiece of the people in the
government — is the stronghold of democracy; and to
this the Aryans alone, of all the races of mankind, have
ever firmly held.

It is remarkable how the primitive Aryan principle of
organization has retained its force through all the centuries
of war and attempted despotism, and how clearly it has
established itself in the móst advanced modern govern-
ment. Efforts numberless have been made to overthrow
it. Popular representation has been prevented, despotism
established, and the aid of religious autocracy brought in
to hold captive the minds of men. In Russia the ancient
democratic institutions have been completely overthrown,
as a result of the Mongol conquest, and replaced by a
patriarchal despotism. l"et these efforts have everywhere
failed. Even in Russia the democratic Aryan spirit is
rising in a wave that no despotism can long withstand. In
Germany the recent effort to establish paternal rule is
an evident failure, and must soon succumb to the peaceful
rebellion of the people. In France monarchy has van-
ished. In England it exists only on sufferance of the rep-
resentatives of the people. But in America alone can the
ancient Aryan principle be said to have fully declared
itself, and the government of the people by the people to
have become permanently established.

America may be particularly referred to from the in-
teresting lesson of human development it displays. It


offers a remarkable testimony to the action of natural law-
in human progress, and the inevitable outworking of con-
ditions in spite of every opposing effort or influence. In
the government of the United States we possess the direct
outcome of the government of ancient Ary a, an unfold-
ment of the governing principle that grew up naturally
among our remote ancestors, with as little variation in
method as if it had arisen without a single opposing effort.
It is the principle of decentralization in government as
opposed to that of centralization. There are but two final
types of government which could possibly arise, no matter
how many intermediate experiments were made. These
are the centralized and the decentralized, the patriarchal
and the democratic. To the persistence of the former it
is necessary that the ruler shall be at once political and
religious despot. He must sway the minds of his people,
or he will gradually lose his absolute control over their
bodies. In China alone does this condition fully exist,
and to it is due the long persistence of the Chinese form
of government. In all the Aryan despotisms of to-day
the autocratic rule can only persist during the continued
ignorance of the people. In none of them is the emperor
a spiritual potentate. With the awaking of general intel-
ligence free government must come.

The Aryan principle of government is that of decentral-
ization. And as no Aryan political ruler has ever suc-
ceeded in becoming the acknowledged religious head of his
people, every effort at despotic centralization has failed or
must fail. Local self-government was the principle of rule
in ancient Arya, and it is the principle in modern America.
There the family was the unit of the government. With
its domestic relations no official dared interfere. The vil-


lage had its governmental organization for the control of
the external relations of its families, under the rule of the
people. The later institution of the tribe had to do merely
with the external relations of the villages ; it could not
meddle with their internal affairs.

As we have said, this principle has been remarkably per-
sistent. It unfolded with hardly a check in Greece. In
the Aryan village two relations of organization existed,
— the family and the territorial. In Greece the former of
these first declared itself, and Greek political societ.y
became divided into the family, the gens, the tribe, and
the State. The family idea was the ruling principle of
organization. It proved, however, in the development
of civilization, to be unsuited to the needs of an ad-
vanced government, and it was replaced by the territorial
idea. This gave rise to the rigidly democratic government
of later Attica. It was composed of successive self-gov-
erning units, ranging downward through State, tribe, town-
ship, and family, while the people held absolute control
alike of their private and their public interests. At a later
date the growth of political wisdom carried this principle
one step farther forward, and a league or confederacy of
Grecian States was formed. Unfortunately this early out-
growth of the Aryan principle was possible in city life
alone. Country life and country thought moved more
slowly, and the wrorld had to await, during two thousand
years of anarchy and misgovernment, the establishment of
popular government over city and country alike.

In the United States of America the Grecian com-
monwealth has come again to life, and the vital Aryan
principle has risen to supremac}7. AYe have here, in a
great nation, almost an exact counterpart of the small


Grecian confederacy. The family still exists as the unit
element, though no longer as a despotism. Then come
successively the ward or the borough, the city or the
township, and the county. Over these extends the State,
and over all, the confederacy or United States. In each
and all of these the voice of the people is the governing
element. And in each, self-control of all its internal
interests is, or is in steady process of becoming, the
admitted principle. It is the law of decentralization car-
ried to its ultimate, each of the successively larger
units of the government having control of the interests
which affect it as a whole, but having no right to meddle
with interests that affect solely the population of any of
the minor units.

Such is the highest condition of political organization yet
reached bv mankind. It is in the direct line of natural
political evolution. And this evolution has certainly not
reached its ultimate. It must in the future go on to the
formation of yet larger units, confederacies of confedera-
cies, until finally the whole of mankind shall become one
great republic, all general affairs being controlled by a par-
liament of the nations, and popular self-government being
everywhere the rule.

This may seem somewhat visionary. Yet Nature is not
visionary, and Nature has declared, in a continuous course
of events, reaching over thousands of years, that there is
but one true line of political evolution. Natural law may
be temporarily set aside, but it cannot be permanently ab-
rogated. It may be hundreds, but can hardly be thou-
sands of years before the finale is reached; yet however
long it may take, but one end can come, — that of the
confederacy of mankind. The type of government that

Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:42:50 PM »


This Spanish region, however, is the one black spot in
the history of modern migration. Elsewhere the good has
far surpassed the evil. No one can for a moment hold
that the Africans or the Australians are the worse off for
the Aryan settlements upon their soil. Nor can it be
maintained that an extension of these settlements will
work any actual harm to the aborigines. At present they
are in a debased condition, and are subject to constant
outrage and injustice from their rulers or from hostile
bands. The influence of Europeans is steadily in the
interest of peace, security, and prosperity; and fiercely as
they have been often opposed by natives of the countries
colonized, yet as a rule these natives have been fighting
against their own advantage. "Wherever the Aryan race
has become definitely established, and peaceful conditions
succeeded, the condition of the natives has been improved,
the wealth of their country developed, all the needs of
a comfortable life increased, peace has succeeded to war,
security to outrage, and the happiness of mankind has
steadily augmented.

The true effect of Aryan migration has been the ex-
tension of the realm of modern civilization, of Christian
ethics, of stable and just political conditions; of active
industry, peaceful relations, and security in the possession
of property; of human liberty and intellectual unfold-
ment; of commerce and developed agriculture ; of rail-
roads, telegraphs, books, tools, abundance of food, lofty
thoughts, and high impulses; and of the noblest standard
and most unfolded practice of morality and human sym-
pathy the world has yet attained. We can scarcely name
in comparison with this great benefit the small increase of
evil, the degree of human suffering which can be attributed


to the Aryans alone, in excess of that which would have
existed without them. As a whole it must be admitted
that the Aryan migration has acted and is acting for
the best interests of all mankind ; and it cannot consis-
tently be deprecated for the minor amount of evil it has


NE important effect of the long process of human evo-

lution which we have considered in the preceding
pages has been such a mingling of the races of man-
kind as in considerable measure to blur the lines of race-
distinction. This mingling, which began in prehistoric
times, has proceeded with enhanced rapidity during the
historic period, — that of active migration and of decreas-
ing devastation. The movements of savage races and of
races in the lower stages of barbarism are apt to be an-
nihilating ones. Of this we have historic instances in the
wars of the American Indians, of the Mongolian nomads,
and even of the Anglo-Saxon conquerors of England.
The captive must have some value to the conqueror ere
he will be permitted to live, and the practice of slavery
produced the first great amelioration of human brutality.
The captors ceased to burn or otherwise slaughter their
captives when they discovered that a slave was of more
value than a corpse ; and the class of conquered subjects
who had been previously massacred were now set to work.
In modern times a second step forward has been taken.
The captive is no longer made the personal slave, but
merely the political subject of the captor, and the ancient
feeling of hostility to the non-combatant is rapidly dying
out. Migratory peoples no longer make a desert for the


growth of their colonies, but simply establish their laws
and introduce their customs in all newly occupied regions,
and mingle freely with their new subjects.

The result of this is necessarily a considerable oblitera-
tion of race-distinctions. Such an obliteration has been
visibly going on since the early days of history, while
many traces of its prehistoric activity yet exist. We
have already dwelt upon the probable partial mingling of
the Xanthochroic and Melanochroie races in ancient Arya.
This was succeeded by a considerable fusion of the migrat-
ing Aryans with the aborigines of conquered provinces.
The almost pure Xanthoehroi of the original Celtic migra-
tion appear to have so thoroughly mingled with a super-
abundant population of European aborigines as nearly to
lose their race-characters, and to suffer marked changes in
their mental constitution. In Hindustan a similar min-
gling, though probably a less complete one, took place.
Religious antipathy here acted as a check of growing
intensity to race-amalgamation. An active race-mingling
appears to have taken place in Germany and Russia.
Scandinavia remained the only home of people of pure
Xanthochroic blood. The probability is, as we have al-
ready suggested, that the southern Xanthoehroi had min-
gled with the Melanochroi at a very early period, but that
the infusion of alien blood was much less decided in the
northern section of the race, and that the northern Aryan
migrants were nearly pure Xanthoehroi. Such seems to
be the case from the fact that their most northerly portion
is yet of pure blood, and that this was the condition of the
Celts and Teutons of early history. The main mingling
with the Semitic Melanochroi was probably that of the
southern branches, who may have been, from a very


remote period, in direct contact with the Semites. The
mingling of the other Aryan branches with alien races
seems to have mainly taken place after the era of their

As we have seen in the last section, however, the com-
pletion of the original Aryan migration was succeeded by a
long period in which the main Aryan movements were con-
fined to Aryan lands. There was a very considerable min-
gling of blood between the different branches of the Aryans,
but the amalgamation with alien races was greatly reduced.
Almost no mixture with the Mongolians took place. To
the south, however, there was more mingling, and the Se-
mites and Hamites must have received a strong infusion
of Aryan blood. This period was followed by that of the
Arabian and the Mongolian migrations and conquests,
and a very considerable new blood-mixture occurred upon
Ar}ran soil. In Russia and in the Aryan districts of Asia
this must have added ver}T considerably to the obliteration
of race-lines in those regions. Yet with all the long-con-
tinued amalgamations we have here considered, it is re-
markable with what vigor the Aryan holds his own. ITis
vital energy everywhere bears him up against alien influ-
ences. The main change produced in his race-character-
istics is that of color. He varies greatly from fair to
dark, but his special physiognomy has been nowhere ob-
literated. The Mongolian type of face has nowhere driven
out the Aryan, but, on the contraiy, shows a disposition to
vanish whenever the two races come into contact. In like
manner the Aryan language and the Aryan mentality have
held their own against all opposing influences. This is
the case in Persia and India, which have been the seat of
the fiercest Mongolian inroads, while the Mongolian in-


vaders of Turkey have lost in great measure the physical
characters of their race, partly by intermarriage, but
equally where no apparent intermarriage has taken place.

The more recent era of Aryan migration has not been an
annihilating one in the ancient sense. Yet it has had a
very marked annihilating effect in a modern sense. The
migrants to America, for instance, have not greatly re-
duced the numbers of the aborigines by the sword ; but
they have largely destroyed them by the contact of civili-
zation. They have brought with them diseases, habits,
and vices to which civilization has become acclimated, but
which have flowed like destroying angels over the barba-
rian lands. Rum and the small-pox have killed far more
than the sword, while the plough has ruined the harvest of
the arrow. In Spanish America hard work and brutality
have had a similar effect. The race-mingling between the
Aryan colonists and the Indians has been comparatively
slight. There has been simply an industrial struggle for
existence, and the Indian, from his non-adaptation to
those new life-conditions, has in great measure vanished
from his ancient localities. His place has been filled by a
less desirable element, — that of the African, whose mil-
lions perhaps fully replace all the vanished aborigines of
America. If so, the non-Aryan inhabitants of America
are as numerous as ever, while they have been lowered in
type both ph}Tsically and mentally by this unfortunate

As to the future of human races in America, no satisfac-
tory decision can be reached. The problem is a highly
complex one. America is a grand storehouse of nations,
the reservoir of the overflow from the Old "World. Between
the Aryan sections of this migration a very free mingling


takes place, and there is arising an American race-type of
well-marked character. There has also been considerable
mingling of Aryan with Indian, particularly in Spanish
America. As the Indians become civilized and agricultural
in habits, it is probable that this amalgamation will go on
at an increased rate, and it is quite possible that the In-
dians may finally disappear as a distinct race, swallowed
up by the teeming millions of Aryan colonists. If they
hold their own, it will be in the tropical regions of South
America, where the conditions of Nature are opposed to
the progress of civilization. Yet we can scarcely doubt
that civilization will yet conquer even the Brazilian forests,
and that the debased aborigines of that region will vanish
before it.

The one perplexing problem of America is the Negro.
Between him and the white the race-antipathy seems too
strong for any great degree of amalgamation ever to take
place, while the mulatto has the weakness and infertility
of a hybrid. In tropical America, indeed, there is a quite
free mingling of whites, Indians, and Negroes; but the
result of this amalgamation is a class that greatly lacks
sta3Ting qualities. The American Negro has marked per-
sistence, while there is little promise that he can be raised
to the level of Aryan energy and intellect. Mentally his
only strong development is in the emotional direction, —
the most primitive phase of mental unfoldment. Yet he is
increasing in numbers with a discouraging rapidity. In
this, however, there seems no threat to Aryan domination.
The negro is normally peaceful and submissive. His lack
of enterprise and of mental activity must keep him so.
Education with him soon reaches its limit. It is capable
of increasing the perceptive, but not of strongly awakening


the reflective, faculties. The Negro will remain the worker.
There is nothing to show that he will, at least for a long
period to come, advance to the rank of the thinker. Of the
two great modern divisions of civilized mankind, the work-
ers and the thinkers, the Negro belongs by nature to the
former class. He will probably long continue distinctly7
separate from the Aryans as a race, — a well-marked
laboring caste among the non-differentiated whites of

As to the future of the continent of Africa, it may pass
through conditions somewhat similar to those that have
taken place in America ; but these changes will be attended
with less barbarity, since the moral status of the white
race has very considerably advanced during the past four
centuries. The wave of Aryan migration has as yet but
begun to break upon African soil. Only in the far South
has it pressed to any extent inward. But an inward pres-
sure has now fairly set in, and it may perhaps not cease
until Africa has come completely under Aryan rule, and is
veiy largely peopled by Aryan inhabitants. The Aryan
settlements in the South promise to become paralleled by
Aryan settlements in the North. Algiers is now a French
province, Tunis is on the road to the same condition, and
Morocco is threatened both by France and Spain, while
Egypt is under English control. The march of events
cannot go backward. There is very little reason to doubt
that the whole region of northern Africa will eventually
come under Aryan influence and become the seat of a
growing Aryan population. And here a decided race-
mingling will very probably take place in the future, as
between the two sub-types of the Caucasian people in the
far past.


Central Africa is being invaded by both these sub-types.
Of these invasions the Melanochroic is to a considerable
extent an amalgamating one. Between Arab and Berber
and Negro, probably of close original race-affinity, there
seems very little blood-antipathy; and Africa is full of
sub-types of man, produced quite probably by a free min-
gling of the black with the Melanochroic race. How long
this mingling has been going on, it is impossible to decide,
and it is equally impossible to conjecture to what varied
race-combinations in the far past the present inhabitants
of Africa are due. But it is very evident that the future
dealings of the Aryans with the Africans will not be con-
ducted to any important extent with the race-counterparts
of the American Negro. The American slaves were princi-
pally brought from nearly the only region of Africa inhab-
ited by the typical Negro, and they thus represent the
least-developed people of that continent. The majority of
the African people are by no means lacking in energy and
warlike vigor, nor in the elements of intelligence. Many
of them seem to stand midway in these characteristics be-
tween the pure Negro of the western tropics and the Arabs
and Berbers of the North. And the vanguard of Aryan
migration may meet as hostile and resolute a resistance as
that experienced from the American Indians.

The whole western coast of Africa, and to some extent
the eastern, is at present dotted with Aryan colonies.
None of these penetrate far inward, the unhealthfulness of
the climate more than the opposition of the Negro checking
their advance. But the key to the centre of the continent
has been found in a great navigable river, the Congo,
whose affluents spread far their liquid fingers through that
fertile unknown land. In this line Aryan migration has


fairly begun its inward march. It will meet with hostile
tribes. Wars will take place. Forcible seizure and ex-
tinguishment of African governments will follow. Aryan
control will be established over African populations. Many
of the Africans will vanish before the Aryan weapons of
rifle and whiskey-bottle. All this may be looked for as
an almost inevitable consequence of the discovery that the
Congo offers a new and valuable channel of commerce.
The railroad past the rapids, and the steamboat on the
river, cannot fail to subdue Central Africa, — far more
quickly, perhaps, than the plough subdued America.
Eventually this inward movement may meet with a north-
ward movement from the South-African settlements. Nor
is it possible at present to decide what may be the final out-
come of English wars in the Soudan and in Abyssinia,
and of French settlements in Algeria. For years past the
Aryan influence in these regions has been steadity on the
increase, and it may eventually make its way deeply into
Africa from these directions toward the Aiyan vanguard
pressing inward from the West. A railroad is already
pushing southward in Algeria, which may eventually
cross the Sahara and reach the long-hidden city of Tim-
buctoo, toward which a railroad is also advancing from the
South. As yet little more has been done than was accom-
plished by the Aryans in America during the sixteenth
century. But there is every reason to believe, from what
we know of the Aiyan and the African character, that
the final result will be the same. Africa will become a
new empire of the Aryans. But the position of the mi-
grants will be rather that of a ruling than of an inhabiting
race. The condition of the Africans is markedly different
from that of the Indians. They are much less warlike, and


much more agricultural. They will undoubtedly remain
upon the soil as its cultivators, while the role of the Aryans
will be that of merchants, rulers, and artisans, in ac-
cordance with their position as the thinking and dominant
minority. In fact there is some reason to believe that the
march of events in the future will bring the African and
the American continents into conditions of some degree
of similarity. Through all the warmer regions of America
the Negroes are increasing with great rapidity. They
exist, and long may exist, as a working caste under Ai'3Tan
dominance. Some similar relation of Aryans and Africans
is not unlikely to arise on African soil, and the final
relation of races in the warmer tropics of both hemispheres
may be that here indicated, — a large population of Af-
rican agricultural laborers, adapted by their physical
nature to a tropical climate, and a smaller population of
Aryan merchants, artisans, and rulers, mainly escaping the
deleterious influence of tropical climates by city residence.
In the higher and more healthful tropics and the semi-
tropics the Aryan population must approach in numbers
that of the tropically adapted race ; and it must retain
a great numerical excess, as now, in the temperate re-
gions, to whose climate the Aryan is physically adapted.

That a race-mingling will take place between these two
widely distinct types of man seems now extremely improb-
able. For a very long period to come it is certain that the
physical and mental antipathy which now exists will be in
no important degree overcome, and for many centuries in
the future the demarcation may remain as strongly de-
clared as now. TYhat the final race-relation will be it is
impossible to predict. There is no strong antipathy be-
tween the native races of the temperate zones of the earth,


the Aryan, Indian, Mongolian, and Melanoeliroic ; and these
may mingle in an increasing ratio until their race-distinc-
tions in great measure disappear. In such a case the only
marked race-demarcation remaining will be that of white
and black, respectively the man of the temperate and the
man of the tropical climates of the earth. But the Indians
of America and the Melanochroi of Africa have but little
race-antipathy to the Negro, and their offspring is of a
higher type than that of the Aryan and the Negro. It is
possible, therefore, that the pure black may eventually
vanish in an intermediate race, as is already so largely the
case in Africa.

In the island region of the Pacific it is highly probable
that the Aryan dominion, which is now firmly established
in every island of any marked agricultural value, will
grow more and more decided, and that the aborigines,
or their Malayan successors, will eventually fall generally
under Aiyan rule. The lower aborigines will very prob-
ably vanish. They lie too far below the level of civilized
conditions to survive the contact with civilization; and
only those of declared agricultural habits, and the active
Malays, are likely to remain as subjects of the growing
Aryan rule.

Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:41:49 PM »

It may be said that of the energy of the Aryans and the
non-Aryans the former has proved persistent, the latter
spasmodic. No sooner was the condition of affairs above
mentioned established than the unceasing pressure of Aryan
energy again began to tell, and a new process of Aryan
expansion to set in. And this process has been continued
with unceasing vigor till the present day. The Aryans of
Spain began, from a mountain corner, to exert a warlike
pressure upon the Arabian conquerors of their land. Step
by step the Arabs were driven back, until they were finally
expelled to the African shores. Simultaneously a vigorous
effort was made to wrest Syria from its Arab lords. All


Europe broke into a migratory fever, and the Crusades
threw their millions upon that revered land. But all in
vain. The grasp of the Moslem was as yet too firm to be
loosened by all the crusading strength of Europe.

At a later date the Mongol hold was slowly broken in
Russia, and the Slavonic Aryans regained control of their
ancient realm, while the invasion of the Turks was
checked, and a reverse movement begun which has con-
tinued to the present day. As for the Magyars of Hun-
gary, their realm has been partly reconquered by Aryan
colonists, its civilization and government are strictly
Aryan, and the Mongolian characteristics of the predomi-
nant race have been to a considerable extent lost. Europe
has been reoccupied by the Aryans, with the exception of
a few Turks who are left upon its borders by sufferance,
and the Mongoloids of the frozen North. In Asia the
Aryan spirit has declared itself less vigorously ; yet Persia,
Afghanistan, and India have declined little if at all in
the percentage of their Aryan populations, while Aiyan
dominance has replaced the Mongol rule in India. As for
the Aryan physical type, it seems to be killing out the type
of the Mongolian in all regions exposed to its influence.
Thus the Osmanli Turks have gained in great measure the
European physical organization, this applying even to the
peasantiy, whose religious and race prejudices must have
prevented much intermarriage with the Aryans. It looks,
in this instance, like an effect of climate, physical sur-
roundings, and life-habits similar to that which, as we
have conjectured, caused the original evolution of the
Aryan race. The same influences may have had much
to do with the loss of Mongolian characteristics in the
Magyars of Hungary.


But the Aryans have been by no means contented with
this slow and as yet but partially completed recovery of
their ancient realm. Only the mutual jealousy of the na-
tions of Europe permits aliens yet to occupy any portion
of this soil, and it is plainly apparent that the complete
restoration of Aryan government over all its ancient do-
minions is a mere question of time. But the slow steps
of this internal movement have been accompanied by an
external one of vast magnitude. After its long rest the
Ai’3Tan race has again become actively migratoiy, an ex-
pansive movement of great energy has set in, and the
promise is that ere it ends nearty the whole of the habi-
table earth will be under Aryan rule, infused wTith Aryan
civilization, and largely peopled with Aryan inhabitants.

It is the control of the empire of the ocean that has
been the moving force in this new migration. The former
one was checked, as we have said, upon the ocean border.
Navigation had not yet become an Aryan art. But the
rise of ocean commerce gave opportunity for a new out-
push of no less vigor than that of old. "When once the
European navigators dared to break loose from sight of
land and brave the dangers of unknown seas, a new chap-
ter in the history of mankind began. The ships of Europe
touched the American shores, and with phenomenal rapid-
ity the invaders took possession of this new-discovered
continent. Not four centuries have passed, and yet
America, from its northern to its southern extremities, is
crowded with men of Aryan blood, and the aborigines
have in great measure vanished before the ruthless foot-
step of conquest.

In the East the activity of Aiwan migration has had
more difficulties to contend with, yet its energy has been


no less declared. The island continent of Australia has
become an outlying section of the Aryan dominions, and
in many of the fertile islands of the Pacific the aborigines
are rapidly vanishing before the fatal vision of the Euro-
pean face. The non-Aryan rulers of India have been
driven out, and England has succeeded to the dominion
of this ancient realm. And finally the u dark continent ”
of Africa is being penetrated at a hundred points by the
foot of the invader, and is already the seat of several
Aryan states.

Side by side with this oceanic migration has been a no
less active and important expansion by land. The Sla-
vonic Allans of Russia had no sooner fairly driven out
their Tartar conquerors and acquired a stable government
than they resumed their ancient migratory expansion and
began to press their way into that vast region of northern
and central Asia upon whose borders the ancient Aryan
advance had paused. Siberia fell before their arms, and
this great but frozen region was added to their empire.
More recently they have taken possession of the western
steppes, seized a considerable region of Chinese Mongolia,
and forced their way deeply into Turkestan. All western
Asia to the borders of China, Afghanistan, and Persia is
to-day a Russian province, and still the march of conquest
goes on. Of the regions of the ancient non-Aryan mi-
gratory activity none, with the exception of Arabia and
Chinese Mongolia, is free from the Aryan grasp or the
preventive influence of Aryan control. The barbarian out-
breaks of the past can never be repeated.

In regard to this modern migrator}7 activity some further
remarks may be made. It is in a great measure a com-
mercial one, and has been very closely governed in its


movements by those of commerce. It had its origin in
the Phoenician trading-stations, and subsequently in the
Greek colonies. It passed from branch to branch of the
Aryan peoples in strict accordance with the shiftings of
commerce. At the period of the discovery of America
there was a very general commercial activity in the At-
lantic nations of Europe, and all of these simultaneously
took part in the struggle for territory that followed. Por-
tugal, Spain, France, Holland, and England each claimed
a share in the rich prize. At a later date, however, Eng-
land rose to unquestioned supremacy in the commercial
world, and this was accompanied by a similar rise to su-
premacy in colonizing efforts. The England of to-day is
extended until it has its outlying members in almost every
region of the habitable earth. The other Aryan peoples,
on the contrary, with the exception of Russia, have lost
in great measure their national migratory activity, as they
have lost their commercial enterprise. The Celts and
Germans still migrate largely as individuals, but this mi-
gration mainly goes to feed colonies of English origin
and to add to the English-speaking populations of the
earth. The very recent colonizing movements of Germany
are acts of the Government, and it remains to be seen if
they will be supported by the people. The same may be
said of the colonial enterprises of France. They are Gov-
ernmental enterprises only, while the people are among
the least migratory in spirit of any European nation.
Only in England, of all the commercial nations of Europe,
are the people and the Government moving hand in hand.

Thus the Aryan migration has to-day reached a highly
interesting stage. The boundary lines which restrained it
several thousand years ago and which remained its limits


until within recent times, have been overleaped, and a new
migration, with all the energy of the old one, is in process
of completion. This migratory movement is at present
largely confined to two of the Aryan peoples, — the Eng-
lish and the Russian. The former has broken through the
ocean barrier ; the latter through the desert barrier, — the
two limits to the ancient migration. The English move-
ment is entirely oceanic, the Russian entirely terrestrial.
The English represents the modern commercial migration ;
the Russian is a survival of the primitive agricultural mi-
gration. These two peoples form the vanguard of the
Aryan race in its double march to gain the empire of the
earth. By a strange coincidence their movements converge
upon one region, — that of India, one of the great prizes
of commerce and war in all the historic ages of mankind.
On the borders of this land the two waves of migration
have nearly met, and the lords of the land and the sea
threaten to join in battle for its mastery. Aryan is again
face to face with Aryan as in the era of the past, and, as
then, the migratory march may end in a fierce strife of
these ancient cousins for a lion’s share of the spoils.

The Aryan outposts of to-day are being pushed forward
so rapidly that they cannot be very definitely named.
The whole of the great continent of America has become
an Aryan region, with the exception of the inaccessible for-
ests of central Brazil and some few minor localities. In
‘ the eastern seas the great island of Australia has become
Aryan ground to the inner limit of its fertile land. In
most of the rich islands of the Pacific the Aryan grasp has
been firmly laid upon the coast-regions, though the abo-
rigines as a rule hold their own internally. The vege-
table wealth of these fertile islands has become the prize


of Aryan commerce. In Asia one of the ancient Aryan
lands, the kingdom of Persia, is under Mongolian rule,
though its population continues largely of Aryan blood.
But in return the greater portion of the old Mongolian
territory has fallen under Aryan dominion, and the out-
posts of European rule have been pushed across Asia to
the Pacific in the north, and to the western borders of
China in the central region. Again, in the southeast, in
that remote region which stayed the march of the ancient
Aryans, the modern Aryans are slowly pushing their way.
England years ago laid her hand on the western coast-
lands and occupied the maritime region of Burmah, while
she has recently seized on the whole of that kingdom.
France has taken as firm a hold on the eastern coast, over
which she exerts a controlling influence. Siam, the re-
maining independent region of Indo-China, will probably
yet fall under the rule of these enterprising invaders.

Africa tells a somewhat similar story. France has
regained from the Mohammedan rule a large section of
the old Roman region in northern Africa. England has
become the virtual lord in Egypt, and may eventually
become the acknowledged lord. Southern Africa, for a
long distance northward from the Cape, has become
English and Dutch territory. Portugal holds large dis-
tricts on both the eastern and the western coasts. Of the
remaining coast-lands, all the western border and a con-
siderable portion of the eastern are claimed by European
nationalities, while in the region of the Congo a strong
inward movement is on foot, and the International Asso-
ciation lays claim to an immense territory in Central
Africa, — a region with a population of perhaps forty mil-
lions, who do not dream that they have gained new lords


on paper. Such is the borcler-land, actual and claimed,
of modern Arya, — the result of four centuries of commer-
cial and colonial enterprise. The Aryan region of old has
been much more than doubled by this new movement. The
hold is yet to some extent simply the grasp of an army
or of a document. But the colonist is advancing in the
rear of the army, and the merchant in the rear of the
document; and the story of Aryan enterprise is but half

If now we seek to review what the other races of man-
kind have done, in rivalry with this energetic movement,
a few words will suffice to tell the tale. The alien outflow
is confined to three peoples alone. The first of these is
the Chinese, some portion of whose crowding millions are
forced to seek other homes afar, and whose strongly
practical disposition has produced a degree of commercial
enterprise. Yet the results of this movement have been
as yet of secondary importance. It has made itself felt
in some regions of the Pacific, and to a minor extent in
America. Yet it can never attain a vigor comparable to
the Aryan while Chinese civilization and Chinese ideas
remain in their present state. The Chinaman is not yet
cosmopolitan like the Aryan ; the world is not his home ;
and wherever he goes he dreams of laying his bones to
rest in Chinese soil. 'While such ideas persist, the Aryans
need fear no powerful competition from this ancient realm.
As for the neighboring Japanese, they have so far shown
no disposition to wander. They are in no sense a migra-
tory people.

The second non-Aryan migratory people is the Arabian.
The migratory spirit which has in all historic times affected
the Semites has by no means died out; and while Europe


is grasping the African shores, the Arabs are penetrating
every portion of the interior of that continent. But their
movements are commercial only, not colonial. The sole
political grasp of Arabia on African soil is in the region
of Zanzibar. Elsewhere their political dominion is but
that of the wandering tribe. The Arabs of to-day are not
in the state of civilization requisite to active colonization,
while there is no pressure of numbers in the home region
to enforce a border outgrowth. Thus there can be said to
be no combined Arabian competition with the Aryans for
the political possession of Africa. The empire-forming
enterprise of the Arabians of old has apparently died out;
and while they retain all their ancient commercial activity,
they manifest no inclination to gain political control of
African soil.

The third migration referred to comes from Africa itself.
It no longer exists, but has had the unfortunate effect of
very considerably extending the area of the Negro race,
— the least-developed section of the human family. This
migration has been solely an involuntary and unnatural
one. It is not the outcome of enterprise among the
migrants, but of the enslaving activity of the Aryans, and
has resulted in widely extending the limits and increasing
the numbers of the most unenterprising and unintellectual
of human races. The migration of Africans to the shores
of America has proved a highly undesirable result of
Aryan enterprise, and has produced a rapidly increasing
population of American Negroes, who cannot but remain
an awkward problem for the civilization of the future.
This people has the unlucky characteristic of prolific
increase, and the unsealing of the continent of Africa by
the slave-dealers has proved like the unsealing of the


magic jar brought up in his net by the Arabian fisherman.
A living cloud has issued, which cannot be replaced in its
former space, and the sealed-up dwarf has been permitted
to expand to the stature of the released giant. This en-
forced outpour of the African race is one of the several
unfortunate results of the over-greed of Aryan colonists.
It has proved far the most unfortunate feature of modern
migratory activity by its extension of the domain of low
intellectuality upon the earth.

We may close with one further consideration, — that of
the comparative good and evil resulting from this modern
Aryan outgrowth. That it has been conducted brutally,
no one would think of denying. The laws of morality and
of natural right have been abrogated in dealing with alien
races ; and had these been wild beasts instead of men, they
in many cases could not have been more cruelly treated
or rapidly annihilated. Yet if we could strictly compare
the good and evil produced, there can be no question that
the former would, so far as man as a whole is concerned,
far outweigh its opposite.

What are the actual facts concerning the suffering which
the aborigines of the earth have endured from Aryan
hands, and the change for the worse in their condition
produced by Aryan occupation? The treatment of the
American Indian is usually considered as a flagrant ex-
ample of injury to the aborigines. Yet it cannot be
justly said that the Indians of the United States have been
at any time visited with more suffering, and made the
subjects of greater outrage, during the Aryan occupation,
than they were ordinarily exposed to before that occupa-
tion. The preceding period was one of incessant wTar,
outrage, slaughter, and torture of prisoners. Security


nowhere existed, and it was impossible for any civilizing
progress to take place. The wars which the Indians waged
with the Europeans were but a continuation of those they
had always previously waged. The slaughter of Indians
was in no sense increased, while there was produced a
mitigation of the more revolting features of Indian conflict.
And the Aryan wars with the Indians were waged in the
interests of peace. They have steadily decreased in
violence and frequency, and an increasing justice and
security in the conditions of Indian life have replaced the
old rule of injustice and insecurity, which but for the
European colonization would still have continued. It may
safely be declared, then, that the Indians have been
benefited far more than they have been injured by the
Aryan conquest, and that to-day they exist in a far higher
state of security, comfort, and happiness than they would
have attained if that conquest had not been made.

Similar remarks can be applied to the Aryan conquests
in every region, with the one exception of Spanish Amer-
ica. Here two civilized empires were overturned by
colonists whose civilization was, in certain respects, of
a lower grade, and millions of people were reduced from
a state of plenty, and comparative freedom and happiness,
to one of want, slavery, and misery. And yet, so far as
the actual progress of civilization is concerned, the general
interests of mankind have not suffered by this outrage.
A civilization of a higher grade has succeeded the imper-
fect conditions of the Aztec and Peruvian States, and the
mass of the human inhabitants of these regions are in a supe-
rior condition to-day than they would have been but for the
Aryan conquest. The low conditions of Indian have been
replaced by the high conditions of European civilization.


Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:40:56 PM »

The Arabian empire served as the connecting-link be-
tween the thought of the ancient and modern world. We
cannot exactly say the Arabians, for this broad empire
clasped the thinkers of nearly all of civilized mankind
within its mighty grasp. It handed down Greek philoso-
phy and science to modern Europe, — the former with many
additions but no improvements, the latter considerably
advanced. The Arabian fancy played with Greek philoso-
phy, but was incapable of developing it, or even of fully
comprehending it. But observation and experiment needed
no vigorous powers of the intellect, and in this direction
many important discoveries were added by the Arabians to
the science of the Greeks. As to the vast results of scien-
tific observation of the modern Aryan world, nothing need
here be said. The coffers of science are filled to bursting
with their wealth of facts.

But science has by no means been confined to observa-
tion. The Aryan imagination has worked upon its store
of facts as actively as of old it worked upon its store of
fancies, and has yielded as abundant and far more valuable


results. Nature is being rebuilt in the mincl of man. One
by one her laws and principles are being deduced from
her observed conditions, and man is gaining an ever-widen-
ing and deepening knowledge of the realities of the uni-
verse in which he lives. And he is beginning: to “ know
himself ” in a far wider sense than was in the mind of the
Grecian sage when he uttered this celebrated aphorism.
The imagination of the past dealt largely with legend, with
misconceptions of the universe, with half observations,
and devised a long series of interesting but valueless
fictions. The imagination of the present is dealing more
and more with critically observed facts, and deducing
from them the true philosophy of the universe, that of
natural law, and of the unseen as logically demonstrable
from the seen. This great field of intellectual labor be-
longs to the Aryans alone. The other races of mankind
have not yet penetrated beyond its boundaries.

Modern Aryan civilization is made up of many more
elements than those whose development we have hastily
reviewed. One of the most marked of these is that of labor-
saving machinery. This is somewhat strictly confined to
modern times and to the Aryan nations. Beyond this
limit it has never existed in other than its embryo state.
Tools to aid hand-work have been devised, but the employ-
ment of other powers than the muscles of man to do the
labor of the world is almost a new idea, scarcely a trace of
it being discoverable beyond the borders of what we may
denominate modern Arya. The immense progress made
in the development of this idea is comparable with the
unfoldment of science, and together they form the back-
bone of modern civilization. Knowledge of Nature, and
industrial application of this knowledge, have given man a


most vigorous hold upon the universe he inhabits; and in
place of the slow, halting, and uncertain steps of progress
in the past, he is now moving forward with a sure and
solid tread, and down broad paths of development as firm
and direct as were the great high-roads that led straight
outward from Rome to every quarter of the civilized world.

The progress of commerce, of finance, and of inquiry
into the underlying laws of social aggregation and political
economy, has been no less great. Here, too, we must
confine ourselves to the limits of the Aryan race, so far as
modern activity is concerned. Commerce, however, had
its origin at a very remote period of human history, and
attained a marked development in Semitic lands before
the Aryans had yet entered the circle of civilization.
There is every reason to believe that the ancient Baby-
lonians had a somewhat extensive sea and river commerce
at a very remote epoch. They were succeeded by the
Phoenicians, who displayed a boldness in daring the dan-
gers of unknown seas that was never emulated by their
successors, the Greeks. The overlaud commerce of the
Phoenicians was also very extensive. Since the origin of
Greek commerce, however, little activity has been shown
in this direction by non-Aryan peoples, with the one ex-
ception of the Arabians, who carried on an extensive ocean
commerce in their imperial era, and who to-day penetrate
nearly every region of Africa in commercial enterprises.
In this respect, also, modern China manifests some minor
activity. Yet the Aryans are, and have been, the great
commercial people of the earth, and have developed mer-
cantile enterprise to an extraordinary degree. Commercial
activity has been handed down in an interesting sequence
from branch to branch of the Aryan race, the Greeks, the


Venetians, the Italians, the Portuguese, the Spanish, and
the Dutch each flourishing for a period, and then giving
way to a successor. To-day, however, commercial activity
is becoming a common Aryan characteristic, and though
England now holds the ascendency, her position is no
longer one of assured supremacy. A century or two more
will probably find every Aryan community aroused to ac-
tive commercial enterprise, and no single nation will be
able to claim dominion over the empire of trade. That
any non Aryan nation will at an early period enter actively
into competition in this struggle for the control of com-
merce, is questionable. The Japanese is the only one that
now shows a strong disposition to avail itself of the advan-
tages of Aryan progress, China }ret hugging herself too
closely in the cloak of her satisfied self-conceit to per-
ceive that a new world has been created during her long

There is one further particular in which comparison
may be made between the Aryan and the non-Aryan
races of mankind,—that of moral development. In this
direction, also, it can readily be shown that the Aryans
have progressed beyond all their competitors. This,
however, cannot be said in regard to the promulgation
of the laws of morality, the great body of rules of
conduct which have been developed for the private gov-
ernment of mankind. It is singular to find that no im-
portant code of morals can be traced to Aryan authorship,
with the single exception of the Indian branch of the
race. There we find the Buddhistic code, which is cer-
tainly one of remarkable character, but which has in
very great measure lost its influence upon the Aryan race.
Alike the morality and the philosophy of Buddhism have


almost vanished from the land of their birth, and this
religious system is now nearly confined to the Mongo-
lian race, while its lofty code of moral observance has
lost its value as a ruling force in the modern Bud-
dhistic world.

A second great code of morals is that of Confucius,
and constitutes essentially the whole of Confucianism.
This religion of educated China consists simply of a
series of moral rules, of a character capable of making
a highly elevated race of the Chinese, had they any de-
cided influence. They are studied abundantly, but only
as a literary exercise. The moral condition of modem
China indicates very clearly that the Confucian code is
one of lip-service only. It has made but little impres-
sion upon the hearts of the people.

The third and highest of the three great codes of
morals is of Semitic authorship, being the lofty doc-
trine of human conduct promulgated by Christ. So
far as the mere rules of conduct embraced in it are
concerned, it differs in no essential features from those
already named. Its superior merit lies in its lack of
appeal to the selfish instincts, and its broad human sym-
patli3T. Buddhism warns man to be virtuous if he would
escape from earthly misery. Confucianism advises him
to be virtuous if he would attain earthly happiness. Do
good, that you may attain Nirvana. Do good to others
if you wish others to do good to you. These are the
dogmas of the two great non-Christian codes. Do good
because it is your duty, is the Christ dogma.   Sin de-

files, virtue purifies, the soul. All men are brothers,
and should regard one another with brotherly affection.
“Love one another.” This is the basic command of the


code of Christ. And in this command we have the high-
est principle of human conduct, — a law of duty that is
hampered by no conditions, and weakened by no promises.

It is singular that the creed of Christ has become the
creed of the Aryan race alone. The Semites, even the
Hebrews, of whose nation Christ was a scion, ignore
his mission and his teachings. But throughout nearly
the whole of the Aryan world it is the prevailing creed,
and its code of morals is to-day observed in a higher
degree than we find in the moral observance of the
remainder of mankind. Elsewhere, indeed, there is abun-
dance of private and local virtue, and rigidly strict ob-
servance of some laws of conduct, though others of equal
value are greatly neglected. But nowhere else has human
charity and the sense of human brotherhood attained the
breadth they display in the Aryan world, and nowhere
else can the feeling of sympathy with all mankind be said
to exist. There is abundance of evil in the Aryan nations,
but there is also abundance of good; and the minor
sense of human duty which is elsewhere manifested is
replaced here with a broad and lofty view that fairly
stamps the Aryan as the great moral, as it is the great
intellectual, race of mankind.



WHEN history opens, it reveals to ns the Aryan race
in possession of a vast region of the eastern hem-
isphere, including some of its fairest and most fruitful por-
tions. How long it had been engaged in attaining this
expansion from its primitive contracted locality ; what bat-
tles it had fought and what blood shed; what victories it
had won and what defeats experienced, — on all this human
annals are silent. Rut we may rest assured that many
centuries of outrage, slaughter, misery, and brutality lie
hidden in this prehistoric abyss. Millions of men were
swept from the face of the earth, millions more deprived
of their possessions, and even of their religions and lan-
guages, millions incorporated into the Aryan tribes, during
this expansion of primitive Arya. The relations of human
races, which had perhaps remained practically undisturbed
for many thousands of years, were largely changed by this
vigorous irruption of the most energetic family of man-
kind. It was as if an earthquake had rent the soil of hu-
man society, broken up all its ancient strata, and thrown
mankind into new and confused relations, burying the old
lines of demarcation too deeply to be ever discovered.

The Aryan migration displays the marks of a high vigor
for so barbaric an age, and was probably the most ener-
getic of all the prehistoric movements of mankind. It met
with no check in Europe except in the frozen regions of


the extreme North, and there it was Nature, not man, that
brought it to rest. Such also was probably the case in
northern Asia. The deserts and the mountain-ranges
there became its boundaries. China lay safe behind her
almost impassable desert and mountain borders. In the
south of Asia only the Semites held their own. They
offered as outposts the warlike tribes and nations of Syria
and Assyria. Possibly an era of hostility may have here
existed ; but if so it has left no record, and there is nothiug
to show that the Aryans ever broke through this wall of
defence. But the remainder of southern Asia fell into
their hands, with the exception of southern India with its
dense millions of aborigines, and the distant region of
Indo-China, on whose borders the Aryan migration spent
its force.

Such is the extension of the Aryan world with which
history opens. It embraced all Europe, with the exception
of some minor outlying portions and probably a con-
siderable region in northern Russia. In Asia it included
Asia Minor and the Caucasus, Armenia, Media, Persia,
and India, with the intermediate Bactrian region. These
formed the limits of the primitive Aryan outpush, and it is
remarkable that it failed to pass beyond these borders,
with the exception of a temporary southward expansion,
for two or three thousand years. It made some external
conquests ; but they were all lost again, and at the opening
of the sixteenth century the Aryan race was in possession
of no lands that it had not occupied at the beginning of the
historical period.

This is a striking circumstance, and calls for some in-
quiry as to its cause. "What was the influence that placed
this long check upon the Aryan outflow? The acting in-


lluences, in fact, were several, which may be briefly named.
A chief one was the almost insuperable obstacle to further
expansion. Many of the boundaries of the new Aryan
world were oceanic, and the art of navigation was as yet
almost unknown to the Aryan race. Other boundaries
were desert plains that offered no attraction to an agricul-
tural people. The purely pastoral and nomadic days of
the race were long since past. In the East the boundary
was formed by the vast multitudes of Indian aborigines,
who fiercely fought for their homes and made the Hindu
advance a very gradual process. In the South warlike
Assyria formed the boundary, and the Semitic world
sternly held its own.

As Aryan civilization progressed, the great prizes of
ambition were mainly included within the borders of
the Aryan world. There is no evidence of a loss of the
original migratory energy; yet it was no longer an energy
of general expansion, but of the expansion of the separate
branches of the race. The Aryan peoples made each other
their prey, and the outside world was safe from their in-
cursions. The only alluring region of this non-Aryan
world was that of the Semitic nations and of Egypt. This
fell at length before Aryan vigor, and became succes-
sively the prey of Persia, Greece, and Pome. Aud the
thriving settlements which the Phoenicians had established
in northern Africa fell before the arms of Rome. Such
was the only extension of the borders of the Aryan world
which history reveals, and this extension was but a tempo-
raiy one. After a thousand years of occupancy the hold
of the Aryans upon the Semitic and Ilamitic regions was
broken, and the invading race was once more confined
within its old domain.


It is not necessary to repeat in detail the historic move-
ments of the Aryans of ancient times. These are too well
known to need extended description. They began with
the rebellion of the Medes against Assyrian rale, and with
the subsequent rapid growth of the Persian empire, which
overran Ass3Tria, Syria, and Egypt. At a later date the
Greeks made their great historical expansion, and under
Alexander gained lordship over the civilized Aryan world.
Still later the Romans established a yet wider empire, and
the world of civilization was divided between Rome and
Persia. The finale of these movements was the irruption
of the Teutons upon the Roman empire, which buried all
the higher civilization under a flood of barbarism.

Thus for about a thousand years the great battle-field of
the world had been confined mainly within Aryan limits,
and the other races of mankind had remained cowed spec-
tators, or to some extent helpless victims, of this bull-dog
strife for empire. The contest ended with a marked de-
cline in civilization and a temporary loss of that industrial
and political development which had resulted from many
centuries of physical and mental labor. The Aryan race
had completed its first cycle, and swung down again into
comparative barbarism, under the onslaught of its most
barbarous section, and as a natural result of its devastat-
ing and unceasing wars.

And now a remarkable phase in the history of human
events appeared. The energy of the ancient Aryan world
seemed to have spent its force. That of the non-Aryan
world suddenly rose into an extraordinary display of vigor.
The Aryan expansion not only ceased, but a reverse move-
ment took place. Everywhere wre find its borders con-
tracting under a fierce and vigorous onslaught from the


Mongolian and Semitic tribes. This phase of the migra-
tory cycle we may run over as rapidly as we did that of the
expanding phase.

The first marked historical movement in this migratory
series was that of the Huns, who overran Slavonic and
pushed far into Teutonic Europe, and under the fierce
Attila threatened to place a Hunnish dynasty on the throne
of imperial Rome. The next striking movement was the
Arabian, which drove back the wave of Aryan conquest
from the Semitic region, from Egypt, and from northern
Africa, and brought Persia and Spain under Arabian domi-
nation. The third was that of the Turks, who replaced
the Arabian rulers of Persia, conquered Asia Minor, and
finally captured Constantinople and the Eastern Empire,
extending their dominion far into Europe and over the
Mediterranean islands. The fourth was that of the Mon-
gols, under Genghiz Khan and Timur, which placed a Mon-
gol dynasty on the throne of India and made the greater
part of Russia a Mongol realm. We need not mention the
minor invasions, of temporary effect, which broke like
fierce billows on the shores of the Aryan world and flowed
back, leaving ruin and disorder behind them. It will suffice
to describe the contraction of the borders of the Aiyan
region which succeeded this fierce outbreak of the desert
hordes upon the civilized world.

All the historical acquisitions of the Aryans were torn
from their hands. The Semitic region became divided be-
tween the Turks and the Arabians. Egypt and northern
Africa were rent from the Aryan world. In the East, Per-
sia, India, and the intermediate provinces, though with no
decrease in their Aryan populations, lay under Mongol
rule. In the West, Spain had become an Arabian kingdom.


A Hungarian nation in central Europe was left to mark the
onslaught of the Ilunnish tribes. In eastern Europe, the
Tartars occupied Russia in force, and held dominion over
the greater part of that empire. Farther south, the Turks
were iu full possession of Asia Minor and Armenia, held
the region of ancient Greece and Macedonia, and extended
their barbaric rule far toward the centre of Europe. The
contraction of the aucient Aryan region had been extreme.
As a dominant race they held scarce half their old domin-
ions, while in many regions they had been driven out or
destroyed, and replaced by peoples of alien blood.

Such was the condition of Europe at the close of the
Middle Ages. The first cycle of human history had be-
come completed, the expansion of the Aryans had been
succeeded by a severe contraction, the growth of ancient
civilization had been followed by a partial relapse into bar-
barism, human progress had moved through a grand curve,
and returned far back toward its starting-point. Such
was the stage from which the more receut history of man-
kind took its rise.

Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:40:02 PM »


For pure activity of work the Mongolians have been un-
surpassed, and no difficulty seems to have deterred them
in the performance of the most stupendous labors. The
Aryans have never displayed an equal disposition to hand-
labor,— not, however, from lack of energy, but simply that
Aryan energy is largely drafted off to the region of the
brain, while Mongolian energy is mainly centred in the
muscles. The Aiyan makes every effort to save his hands.
Labor-saving machinery is his great desideratum. The
Mongolian, with equal native energy, centres this energy
within his muscles, while his brain lies fallow. The Chi-
nese, for instance, are the hardest hand-workers in the
world. The amount of purely physical exertion which they
perform is nowhere surpassed. The productiveness of
their country, through the activity of hand-labor alone, is
considerably superior to that of any other country not
possessed of effective machinery. But in regard to thought
they exist in an unprogressive state. Little has been done
by the brain to relieve the hand from its arduous labor.
Chinese thought is mainly a turning over of old straw.
The land is almost empt}T of original mental productions.

If we consider the record of the Mongolians of the past
the same result appears. They have left us monuments
of strenuous work, but none of highly developed thought.
China, the most enlightened of Mongolian nations, has an
immense ancient literature, but none that can be compared
with Aryan literature in respect to display of mental ability.
Its highest expression is its philosophy, and that, in
intellectual grasp, is enormously below the contemporary
philosophy of India. But in respect to evidences of
muscular exertion it has no superior. The Great YYall of
China far surpasses in the work there embodied any other


single product of human labor. Yet it is in no sense an
outcome of advanced thought. It is the product of a
purely practical mind, and one of a low order of intelli-
gence, as evidenced by the utter uselessness of this vast
monument of exertion for its intended purpose. The Great
Canal of China is another product of a purely practical
intellect. Every labor performed by China has a very
evident purpose. It is all industrial or protective. There
are no monuments to the imagination. Y"et the lack of
mental out-reach has prevented any great extension of
labor-saving expedients. At long intervals, during the
extended life of the nation, some useful invention has
appeared, — such as that of the art of printing. Yet for
much more than a thousand years this art has remained in
nearly its original stage, while in Europe, during a con-
siderably shorter period, it has made an almost miraculous
advance. Among the few illustrations of non-practical
labor in China are its pagodas, which seem like the play-
things of a rudimentary imagination wdien compared with
the architectural monuments of Europe.

If now we review the products of the American abo-
rigines, whose closest affinities are certainly with the
Mongolians, we arrive at a similar conclusion. There is
evidence of an immense ability for labor, but of no superior
powers of thought. The quantity of sheer muscular
exertion expended on the huge architectural structures and
the great roads of Peru, the immense pyramids of Mexico,
and the great buildings of Yucatan, is extraordinary. The
huge mounds erected by the ancient dwellers in the
Mississippi valley are equally extraordinary, when we
consider the barbarian condition of their builders. There
is here no lack of muscular energy. No people of native


indolence could have erected these monuments, or have
even conceived the idea of them. There is abundant
ability to work displayed, but no great ability to think.
The great roads of Peru are products of a practical mind.
In regard to the remaining works, they were largely incited
by religious thought. They yield us in massive walls and
crude ornamentation the record of the highest imaginative
out-reach and artistic power of the American mind. When
we come to examine them we find that their main ex-
pression is that of hugeness. Their art is rudimentary,
except in some few striking instances in the Maya archi-
tecture and statuary of YTicatan. There are indications
of intellectual ability, but it remains in its undeveloped
stage. Energy is not lacking, but it is mainly confined to
the muscles, and but slightty vitalizes the mind.

We have evidences of similar conditions in the works of
architecture remaining from the pre-Aryan age of Europe.
The huge monoliths of Stonehenge, Avebuiy, and Carnac,
and the Cyclopean walls of Greece and Italy (the latter
possibl}7 of Aryan formation), indicate a race or an era
when muscle was in the ascendant and thought in embiyo.
The idea was the same as that indicated in the structures
of Asia and America, — to astound future man with edifices
that seem the work of giant builders. No indication of
the loftiest conception of architectural art appears,—that
of the simple combination of the ornamental with the
practical, and the restriction of size to the demands of
necessity and the requirements of graceful proportion. To
astonish by mere hugeness is a conception of the unde-
veloped mind. Blind force can raise a mountain mass ;
only higlil}7 developed intellect can erect a Greek temple.

The Melanochroic division of the white race repeats in


its work the Mongolian characteristic of hugeness. Yet
it indicates superior thought-powers, and has attained
a much higher level of art. In the extraordinary archi-
tectural and artistic monuments of Egypt the power of
sheer muscular vigor displayed is astounding. The world
has never shown a greater degree of energy; but it is
rather energy of the hands than of the mind. The ru-
dimentary idea of vast size is the main expression of these
works; and though they have sufficient artistic value to
show a considerable mental unfoldment, yet hugeness of
dimensions and the power of overcoming difficulties are
their overruling characteristics. The old rulers of Egypt
were eager to show the world of the future what labors they
could perform ; they were much less eager to show what
thought they could embody.

And yet among the monuments of Egypt and those of
the sister nations of Assyria and Babylonia we find our-
selves in a circle of thought of far higher grade than that
displayed by the Mongolian monuments. There is indi-
cated a vigorous power of imagination and an artistic ability
of no mean grade, while strong evidence appears that
but for the restraint of conventionality and the distracting
idea of hugeness, art would have attained a much higher
level. The rudiment of the Greek temple appears in the
architecture of Egypt and Assyria, and the former is a
direct outgrowth from the latter in the hands of a people
of superior intellectuality.

If the Negro is indolent both physically and mentally,
the Mongolian energetic physically but undeveloped men-
tally, and the Melanochroi active physically and to some
extent mentally, in the Aryan we find a highly vigorous
and developed mental activity. Though by no means


lacking in ph}Tsical energy, the mind is the ruling agent in
this race, muscular work is reduced to the lowest level
consistent with the demands of the body and the in-
tellect, and every effort is made to limit the quantity of
work represented in a fixed quantity of product. Waste
labor is a crime to the Aryan mind. Use is the guiding
principle in all effort. It is to this ruling agency of the
intellect over the energies of a muscular and active
organism that we owe the superior quality, the restricted
dimensions, and the vast quantit}T of Aryan labor products.
In this work pure thought is far more strongly represented
than pure labor.

In the two great intellectual Aryan peoples of the past,
the Greek and the Hindu, the artistic products are strik-
ingly in accordance with the character of their respective
mentality. The work of the Hindu displays an imagina-
tive exuberance, with a lack of reasoning control. In it
we have rather the idea of vastness than of hugeness, a
vague yet strong mental upreach, while a superfluity, al-
most a wildness, of ornament testifies to the unrestrained
activity of the imagination. There is indicated no con-
trolling idea of utility. The Hindus were almost devoid
of practicality. Their architecture seems an embodiment
of their philosophy, —daring, unrestrained, and unpractical
throughout. In their older cave-temples, such as that at
Elephanta, sheer labor is the strongest characteristic; but
it is labor underlaid with a vigorous sense of art. In the
extraordinary excavations at Ellora an exuberant imagi-
nation carries all before it, and we seem to gaze upon
an epic poem in stone, rendered inartistic by its endless
superfluity of ornament.

In Greek architecture and in all Greek art. on the con-


trary, are visible the evidences of a subdued imagination.
In breadth and height of imaginative conception the Greek
mind is in no sense iuferior to the Hindu, but it is every-
where restrained by the habit of observation and by a
sense of the logical fitness of things. The Hindu looked
inward for his models, and built his temples to fit the con-
ceptions of his imagination. The Greek looked outward,
found his models in the lines and forms of the visible, and
sought to bring his work into strict conformity with the
grace, harmony, and moderation of external Nature. In
this effort he attained a remarkable success. True art
was born with him. All excess and exuberance disap-
pears, the wings of the imagination are clipped, and its
flights kept down to the level of the visible earth. The
idea of the practical is everywhere combined with that of
the ornamental. The subordination of the mind to the
teachings of visible Nature is rigidly maintained. Greek
art is the actual, reproduced in all its lines and propor-
tions, and with a strictly faithful rendering that detracts
from its value as a work of the intellect, while adding to it
as a work of art.

The defect of Greek art lies in an excess of this re-
straint. It sins in one direction, as Hindu art does in the
other. The wings of the imagination are too severely
clipped. It is undoubtedly a high conception of art accu-
rately to reproduce in marble the exact details and propor-
tions of the human frame. But the Greek fixed his eyes
so closely upon the body that he in a measure lost sight
of its animating soul. This is not the highest conception
of art. To imitate physical Nature exactly, was a great
achievement; and this the Greek artist attained to a de-
gree that can never be surpassed. But to reproduce the


mind in the body, is a greater achievement; and in this
direction Greek art made but the preliminary steps.

The great statues of Greece represent types, not indi-
viduals. They display the mental characteristics of fear,
modesty, terror, dignity, and the like, in the gross, not in
detail. Their works are like the combined photographs
by which the general typical features of groups of men are
now reproduced. The special and individual varieties of
these characters are never represented. It is the same
with Greek architecture. It contains the harmonies and
proportions of physical Nature, but it is empty of the deep
spiritual significance with which Nature is everywhere per-
vaded. It is a magnificent body, but it lacks the soul.
The same would doubtless prove to be the case with Greek
painting, had it been preserved. It is largely the case
with Greek literature. Its characters are t}Tpes of man
more largely than they are individual men. Too strict
devotion to the seen is the weak point in Greek thought.
Its flight lies below the level of the unseen.

Modern Aryan art has taken a higher flight. 'While
paying less attention to the bod}T, it has paid more to the
soul. In Gothic architecture the imagination displays a
certain extravagance of manifestation ; but in it there is
embodied something of that profound and awe-inspiring
spiritual significance of Nature which Greek art fails to
manifest. Modern sculpture, while it does not attain to
the Greek level of physical perfection, indicates a higher
ideal of mentality. It represents the individual instead of
the group, and seeks to reproduce human emotion in its
special, instead of its general varieties of manifestation.
But the true modern arts, those best suited for mental em-
bodiment, are painting and music. Of these the former


attained some ancient development; the latter is strictly
modern as an art. It is mainly in these, and particularly
in music, — the latest production of Aryan art, —that the
soul shows through the thought, and that man has broken
the crust of clay which envelops his inmost being, and
auimated the products of his art with the deep spiritual
significance that everywhere underlies Nature. In the
work of the modern artist, in fact, we seem to have found
the true middle line between the opposite one-sidedness of
Greek and Hindu art. In the former of these the vis-
ible too strongly controls ; in the latter the invisible. In
the one the logical, in the other the imaginative, faculty of
the mind attains undue predominance. The modern artist
seeks to make these extremes meet. He fails to rival the
Greek in the physical perfection of his work mainly be-
cause his thought looks deeper than mere ph}Tsical perfec-
tion ; he fails to display the Hindu exuberance of fancy
from the fact that he never loses sight of the physical.
As a consequence, his work pursues the mid-channel be-
tween the logical and the imaginative, and reproduces
Nature as it actually exists,—everywhere a body ani-
mated by a soul. It is the individual that appears in
modern art, as it is the individual that rules in modern
society. In ancient nations the individual was of secon-
dary importance. The group was the national unit alike
in the family, the village, the gens, the tribe, and the va-
rious subdivisions of the State. The individual was im-
perfectly recognized in society, and became as imperfectly
recognized in art.

In respect to the art of the non-Aryan nations little
need be said. It lay far, often immeasurably, below the
level of Aryan art. What the art of Egypt might have


attained if freed from the restraint of conventionalism, it
is difficult to say. It would probably even then have
ended where Greek art began, as we find to be the case
with the less conventionalized art of Assyria. The art of
the Americans was far more rudimentary. In one or two
examples it approaches the character of Greek art, but as
a rule it is rather grotesque than artistic. The same re-
mark applies to the art of modern China. It belongs to
the childhood of thought.

The world of science is almost completely an Ai^an
world. In this important field of thought the non-Aryan
races of mankind stop at the threshold of discovery.
Their most important work is in the formation of the
calendar, to which strict necessity seems to have driven
them. In this direction considerable progress was early
attained. Each of the primitive civilizations measured the
length of the year with close exactness, the Mexicans par- -
ticularly so, their calendar being almost equally accurate
with that of modern nations. This was a work of pure
observation, and astronomical conditions seem strongly to
have attracted the attention of early man. In fact the
only extended series of scientific observations in the far
past of which we are aware, is that of the Babylonians,
in their close watch upon the movements of the stars and
their study of eclipses. As to the accuracy and actual
value of this work, we really know very little. Some sim-
ilar observations were recorded by the Chinese. But
nearly all the actual results of science which the Aryan
has received from the exterior world consist in these few
astronomical observations, — the partial settlement of the
length of the year, its division into months and weeks,
and the similar division of the day into its minor portions.


On this small foundation the Aryans have built an im-
mense superstructure. Aryan science began with the
Greeks, whose tendency to exact observation made them
critically acquainted with many of the facts and conditions
of Nature. Y"et during' all the early eras of Greek enlight-
enment the activity of the imagination prevented this habit
of observation from producing valuable scientific results.
It was devoted principally to the purposes of philosophy
and art. It was necessary that able men, in whom logic
was superior to imagination, should arise ere science could
fairly begin. The first of these men we find in Thucy-
dides,— a cool, practical thinker, who made history a
science. The second of marked superiority was Aristo-
tle,— the true founder of observational science, which had
but a feeble existence before his day. His teacher, Plato,
was a true Greek, with all the fervor of the Hellenic im-
agination. Aristotle was essentially a logical genius. An
effort to bring himself into conformity with the prevailing
conditions of Greek thought forced him into various lines
of speculation ; but the ruling tendency of his mind was
toward incessant observation of facts for the accumula-
tion of exact knowledge. There had been preceding
Greek naturalists. Several noted physicians, particularly
Hippocrates, had made medical investigations. Aristotle
made use of the work of these men ; but it is doubtful if it
was of much extent or accuracy. To it he added a great
accumulation of facts, while laying down the laws of logi-
cal thought, which he was the first to formulate, and to
which little of value has been since added.

Any review of the subsequent history of science in the
Aryan world is beyond our purpose. It is far too vast a
subject to be even named at the conclusion of a chapter.


It will suffice to say that the Greek mind seized with avid-
ity upon the new field of labor thus opened to it. It was
native soil to Greek thought, although it yet lay fallow.
The tendency of the Hellenic race to critical observation
had for centuries been fitting them for the work of re-
search into the facts of Nature ; and had the Greek intel-
lect remained in the ascendant there is no doubt that the
schools of Alexandria would have been the focus of a
great scientific development during the ancient era. As
it was they performed a large amount of good work, and
built a broad foundation for the future growth of this new
product of the human understanding.

Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:39:15 PM »

tiguous Finns, whom we have viewed as nearly related
in race to the Slavonic Aryans, have evolved an epic
poem of some considerable merit, and of interest as the
latest work of this character to come into existence in
the primitive method. Its elements long existed among
the Finnish people as a series of heroic legendary bal-
lads, the work of arranging which into a connected epic
form was due to Dr. Lönnrot, of Helsingfors, who col-
lected from the lips of the peasantry, and published in
1835, the epic production now known as the Kalevala,
the “Home of Heroes.” These legends belong mainly
to the pre-Christian period of Finnish culture. They
centre, in true epic style, round the hero Wainamoinen,
whose deeds, with those of his two brother heroes, form
the theme of a series of connected lays, which fall to-
gether into a poem almost as homogeneous as the Iliad.
It is a work instinct with mythology. It opens with a
myth of the creation of the universe from an egg, and
is full of folk-lore throughout. The heroes of Kaleva,
the land of happiness, bring down gifts from Heaven to
mortals, and work many magic wonders. Yet they min-
gle in the daily life of the people, share their toils, and
enter into their rest. They are, as Mr. Lang says,
“ exaggerated shadows of the people, pursuing on a
heroic scale, not war, but the common business of peace-
ful and primitive men.” Yet the poem is not without
its warlike element, — in the struggle of the heroes of
Kaleva with the champions of Pohjola, the region of
the frozen North, and of Luonela, the land of death.
It ends, after many vicissitudes, in the triumph of Wai-
namoinen and his followers over their foes. Of the
merits of this poem, Max Müller remarks: “From the


mouths of the aged an epic poem has been collected,
equalling the Iliad in length and completeness, — nay, if
we can forget for the moment all that tee in our youth
learned to call beautiful, not less beautiful.” In metre
and style it resembles Longfellow’s “Hiawatha,” which
imitates it with some exactness.

Though the Slavonic people have produced no heroic
epos of this completeness, they are not without their
heroic poetry. The success attained by Dr. Lönnrot in
studying the popular poetry of Finland has led to like
efforts in Russia, with very marked results. Two great
collections of the epic lays of the Russian people now
exist,—that published by P. N. Ruibnikof in 18G7; and
that of P. R. Kiryeevsky, which is not yet completed.
These lays were collected from the lips of the Russian
peasantiy, the whole country being traversed by the
ardent explorers in their indefatigable search for the
old songs of the Slavonic race. The Builinas, or historic
poems, thus rescued from oblivion seem naturally to fall
into several cycles, each with its distinct characteristics.
Of these the most archaic lays deal with the “Elder He-
roes,” and are evidently of mythologie origin. Closely
connected with these in character is the cycle named after
Vladimir the Great. This is the epos of the “ Younger
Heroes,” — the ancient paladins of the country, like those
of the Charlemagne and Arthur legends. The third is
known as the Novgorod cycle, and deals with the remote
era of historic Russia. The fourth is the Royal or Mos-
cow cycle, and has the personages of actual history for
its heroes.

These Russian songs show no tendency to centre round
any single hero, and thus offer no opportunity for their


concentration into a single connected poem. In the his-
tory of national epic poetry, in fact, we seem to distinguish
two distinct lines of development. One of these is that
pursued by Persia, Rome, and Russia, in which no single
hero has concentrated the attention of singers, and the
flow of song takes in a long succession of fabulous and
historical champions. The other is that pursued by the
remaining Aryans, in which song centred itself around one
or a few great warriors, mostly of mythological origin, and
the series of songs naturally combined into a connected
narrative. This is the more archaic stage of the two, or
perhaps the one that indicates the most active imagination,
and it is the one to which all the naturally evolved epic
poems of the world are due.

The production of heroic poetry by the Aryan peoples
by no means ceased with their stage of half-barbaric de-
velopment. Numerous valuable epic poems have been
produced in the age of civilization; but of these we need
say nothing, as they are secondary products of the human
mind, and not the necessary outcome of mental evolution.
They are only of value to us here as evidences of the
continued vigor of the Aryan imagination. One only of
these presents any of the characteristics of a naturally
evolved work. This is the great poem of Dante, the
Dicina Commedia, in which the Middle-Age mythology
of the Christian Church has become embodied in song, the
record of a stage of thought which can never be repro-
duced upon the civilized earth. The Inferno of Dante is
the mediaeval expression of a succession of extraordinary
conceptions of the future destiny of the soul. These are
of strict Aryan origin, since all non-Aryan nations have
had very vague conceptions of the punishment of the


wicked. The extreme unfoldment of the hell-idea we owe
to the Hindu imagination, and a less exaggerated one
to that of Persia. It would be difficult to conceive of
a more grotesquely extravagant series of future tortures
than those of the Buddhistic liell. These ideas have been
carried by the Buddhists to China, while they gave the
cue to Mohammed and instigated the hell of the Koran.
Their final product is the hell of mediaeval Europe, and
they have attained poetical expression in Dante’s In-
ferno. We may therefore fairty class this poem with the
primitive epics of mankind, as it gives poetic expression
to a stage of human culture and a natively evolved series
of mythical conceptions which have died out with the
advance of civilization, but which were as essential ele-
ments of thought-development as the worship of mythical
deities and the admiration of heroic demigods.

We have given considerable attention to the development
of Aryan epic poetry from the evidence which it presents
of the distinctly superior character of the Aryan imagina-
tion to that of the other races of mankind. None of these
can be fairly said to have reached the epic level of thought.
The Aryans have continuously progressed beyond this
level. But the steps of this progression can here but con-
cisely be indicated. The epic spirit in ancient Greece
unfolded in two directions, one producing the imaginative
historical narrative, the other giving rise to the drama.
The former of these in that actively intellectual land
quickly developed into history in its highest sense, yielding
the rigidly critical and philosophical historical work of
Thucydides. The latter as quickly gave rise to a succes-
sion of the noblest dramatic productions of mankind, those
of the three great tragedians of Greece. Elsewhere in the


ancient world the course of development was much the
same. Rome produced no native drama of literary value,
but in historic production it rivalled the best work of
Greece, passing from the half-fabulous historical legends
of Livy to the critical production of Tacitus. In this re-
spect practical Rome was in strong contrast to imaginative
India, in which land history remained undeveloped, while
a drama of considerable merit came into existence.

If now we consider the unfoldment of modern European
literature, it is to find it pursue a somewhat different
channel, and reach results not attained in ancient times.
The rhymed romance of chivalry was the direct outgrowth
of the epic spirit in mediaeval Europe, and was accom-
panied by metrical histories as fabulous as the romance.
In their continued development these two forms of litera-
ture deviated. The history of fable gradually unfolded into
the history of fact. Prose succeeded verse, and criticism
replaced credulit}7. The rhymed romance, on its part, de-
veloped into the prose romance, and lost more and more of
its magical element, until it full}7 entered the region of the
possible. It still continued tedious and extravagant, but
had got rid of its old cloak of mythology.

Ancient fiction reached a stage somewhat similar to this,
though not by the same steps of progress. In the later
eras of Greece romantic fictions appeared, comprising
pastoral, religious, and adventurous tales similar to those
which were the ruling fashion of a few centuries ago in
Europe. But there was little trace of the allegory, which
became such a favorite form of literature with our fore-
fathers. In India this development stopped at a lower
stage, that of fable and fairy lore. But in this field
the active Hindu imagination produced abundantly, and


directly instigated the Persian and Arabian magical liter-
ature. Through the latter its influence entered modern
Europe. Collections of the Hindu tales were extant in the
Middle Ages, and from them seems to have directly out-
grown the short novel or tale, which attained such popu-
larity and reached its highest level of art in the Decameron
of Boccaccio.

But in more modern times the imaginary narrative has
passed onward to a far higher stage than it attained in the
ancient period, and has yielded the character-novel of our
own day, — a literary form in which the combined imagina-
tion and reason of the Aryan mind have gained their lofti-
est development. The novel is the epic of the scientific
and reflective era. It has cast off the barbaric splendor
of the mantle of verse and of magical and supernatural
embellishments, and has descended to quiet prose and
actual life conditions. It has left the heroic for the do-
mestic stage. It has replaced the outlined characters of
the epic by critical dissections that reveal the inmost fibres
of human character. The stirring action of the epic has
in it been replaced in great part by reflection and mental
evolution. It forms, in short, the storehouse into which
flows all the varied thought of modern times, there to be
wrought into an exact reproduction of the physical, social,
and mental life of man.

The modern drama unfolded at an earlier date than the
novel. But its evolution was a native one only in Spain
and England. Elsewhere it was but an imitation of the
drama of the ancient world. It attained its highest level
in the works of Shakspeare, which indeed prefigured the
modern novel in the critical exactness and mental depth
of their character-pictures and in the reflective vein which


underlies all their action. As complete reproductions of
intellectual man, and dissections of the human understand-
ing in its every anatomical detail, they probably stand at
the highest level yet reached by the powers of human
thought. The remaining outgrowth of epic narrative, that
of prose history, has likewise attained a remarkable devel-
opment in modern times, and has become as philosophical
and critical as the narrative of ancient times, with few
exceptions, was crude, credulous, and unphilosophical.

If an attempt be made to compare the literary work
of the non-Aryan nations in these particulars with the
Aryan productions, it will reveal a very marked contrast
between the value of the two schools of thought. Noth-
ing need be said of the fictitious or historical literature of
the ancient non-Aryan civilizations. It lay in intellectual
power very far below the level attained by Greece. The
only important literary nation of modern times outside
the Aryan world is China. In the making of books the
Chinese have been exceedingly active, and their literature
is enormous in quantity; the Europeans scarcely surpass
them in this respect. But in regard to quality they stand
immeasurably below the Aryan level.

Though China has produced no epic poem, it has been
very prolific in historical and descriptive literature and in
what is called the drama and the novel. Yet in its his-
torical work it has not gone a step beyond the annalistic
stage. The idea of historical philosophy is yet to be bom
in this ancient land. As for tracing events to their causes,
and taking that broad view of history which converts the
consecutive detail of human deeds into a science, and dis-
plays to us the seemingly inconsequential movements of
nations as really controlled by necessity and directed by


• the unseen hand of evolution, such a conception has not
yet entered the unimaginative Chinese mind.

As regards the Chinese drama and novel, they are
utterly unworthy of the name. Character-delineation is
the distinctive feature of the modern novel, and of this
the novel of China is void. It consists mainly of inter-
minable dialogues, in which moral reflections and trifling
discussions mingle, while the narrative is made tedious by
its many inconsequential details. The stories abound in
sports, feasts, lawsuits, promenades, and school exam-
inations, and usually wind up with marriage. There is
abundance of plot, but no character. Their heroes are
paragons of all imaginable virtues, — polished, fascinating,
learned; everything but human. The same may be said
of the Chinese drama. It is all action. Reflection and
character-analysis fail to enter. There are abundance of
descriptions of fights and grand spectacles, myths, puns,
and grotesque allusions, intermingled with songs and bal-
lets. The plot is sometimes very intricate, and managed
with some skill; but often the play is almost destitute of
plot, though full of horrible details of murders and ex-
ecutions. Fireworks, disguised men, and men personating
animals, are admired features of those strange spectacles;
but as for any display of a high order of intellectuality,
no trace of it can be discovered in the dramatic or fictitious
literature of this very ancient literary people.

There is no occasion, in this review, to consider all the
many divisions into which modern Aryan literature has
unfolded. There is, however, yet another of the ancient
and naturally evolved branches of literature to be taken
into account. AVe have said that the general course of
poetic development seems to have been from the religious


through the heroic lyric to the epic. But lyric poetry con-
tinued its development, accompanying and succeeding the
epic. It has indeed come down to our own times in a
broad flood of undiminished song. It is with the lyric,
truly so called, that we are here concerned, — the poetry
of reflection, the metrical analysis of human emotion and
thought, in contrast with the poetry of action. To this
may be added the poetry of description, of the love-song,
and of the details of common life, with all their numerous

In this field of literature alone the other races come
more directly into comparison with the Aryan. Prolific as
every branch of the Aryan race' has been in lyric song,
the remaining peoples of civilized mankind have been little
less so, and in this direction have attained their highest
out-reach of poetic thought. The Hebrews specially ex-
celled in the lyric. In the poem of moral reflection and
devotion, in the delineation of the scenes and incidents
of rural life, and in the use of apposite metaphor, they
stand unexcelled, while in scope of sublime imagery the
poem of Job has never been equalled. This poetry, how-
ever, belongs to a primitive stage of mental development,
— that in which worship was the ruling mental interest of
mankind. The intellect of man had not expanded into
its modern breadth, and was confined to a narrow range
of subjects of contemplation.

At a later period the Semitic race broke into a second
outburst of lyric fervor, — that of the Arabians in their im-
perial era. But this failed to reach any high standard of
intellectual conception. Their poems were largely devoted
to love and eulogy ; and while they had the same metrical
harmony ns their direct successors, the works of the Trou-


baclours and the Minnesingers, they, like these, were
largely void of thought, and lacked sufficient vitality to
give them continued life. In China, again, we find a very
considerable development of non-Aryan lyric song, coming
down from a very early period of the nation. And these
lyrics have often much merit as quiet pictures of life; but
it cannot be claimed that they show any lofty intellectual
power. For the highest development of the lyric, as of
every form of literary work, we must come to the Aryan
world, where alone thought has climbed and broadened,
reaching its highest level and its widest outlook, and sink-
ing to its profoundest depth of analysis of the mental
universe. So far as literature embodies the powers of
the human intellect, it points to the Aryan development
as supremely in advance of that of the other races of


IT is necessary, in continuation of our subject, to con-
sider the comparative record of the Aryan and the
other races of mankind in respect to the development
of art, science, mechanical skill, and the other main
essentials of civilization. In doing so, certain marked
distinctions make themselves apparent, and it seems pos-
sible to draw broad lines of demarcation between the
principal races. If we consider the Negro race from this
point of view, it is to find a lack of energy both physical
and mental. Nowhere in the region inhabited by this race
do we perceive indications of high powers either of work
or thought. No monuments of architecture appear; no
philosophies or literatures have arisen. And in their
present condition they stand mentally at a very low level,
while physically they confine themselves to the labor ab-
solutely necessary to existence. They neither work nor
think above the lowest level of life-needs; and even in
America, under all the instigation of Aryan activity, the
Negro race displays scarcely any voluntary energy either
of thought or work. It goes only as far as the sharp
whip of necessity drives, and looks upon indolence and
sunshine as the terrestrial Paradise.

The record of the Mongolian race is strikingly different.
Here, too, we find no great scope or breadth of thought,
but there is shown a decided tendency to muscular exertion.


Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:37:18 PM »

versification. As compared with the Hindu epics, it
displays the artistic moderation of Greek thought in con-
trast with the unpruned exuberance of the Oriental imagi-
nation. Even the gods which crowd its pages are as human
in their lineaments as a Greek statue, and we are every-
where introduced to the society of actual man, with his
real passions, feelings, and sentiments, instead of to a
congeries of phantasms whose like never drew breath in
heaven, earth, or sea.

The Odyssey has been subjected to criticism of the same
character, and with like indefinite results. There can be
no doubt that here also we have to do with one of the
favorite heroes of Greek legend,—the wise, shrewd, hard-
headed old politician Ulysses, in contrast with the fiery
Achilles, uncontrollable alike in his fury and his grief.
They are strongly differentiated types of character, both
to be found in the mental organization of the Greek,
and perhaps chosen from an involuntary sense of their
fitness. We need not here follow Ulysses in his wan-
derings and his strange adventures by land and sea. They
simply indicate the conception of the ancient Greek mind,
yet firmly held in mythologie fetters, of the conditions of
the world beyond its ken. Yet a considerable change had
taken place in the ruling ideas between the dates of the
two poems. The turbulent Olympian court of the Iliad
has almost disappeared in the Odyssey, and Zeus has
developed from the hot-tempered monarch of the Iliad
into the position of a supreme moral ruler of the uni-
verse. If both poems are the work of one hand, which
is now strongly questioned, the poet must have passed
from the ardent and active youth of the Iliad to the re-
flective era of old age and into a period of developed


religions ideas ere he finished his noble life-work with the

Of the remaining epic work of Greece nothing need be
said. The true epic spirit seems to have died with Homer ;
and though many heroic poems were afterward produced,
they lack the lofty poetic power of the ancient Muse.
But one work need be named here, the Theogony of He-
siod, as at once partly an epic poem, and partly a mytho-
logical record. To a certain extent it may be classed
with the Icelandic Eddas and the Persian cosmogony;
though the scheme which it presents is less connected and
complete, and it cannot lay the same claim to the title of
a philosophy of mythology. On the other hand, it details
many stirring scenes, and its description of the battles
between Zeus and the Titans has an epic power which
approaches that of Milton’s story of the war on Heaven’s

The epic poetry of Rome may be dismissed with a few
words. That the Romans possessed the vigor of imagi-
nation and the boldness and sustained energy of concep-
tion necessary to work of this description, is sufficiently
attested by the JEneid of Virgil. But it is with a native
epic growth that we are here concerned, not with a second-
ary outcome of Greek inspiration. A study of ancient
Roman history reveals the fact that abundance of epic
material existed. This history is in great part a series of
legends, many of which are doubtless prose versions of old
heroic lays. Cicero remarks that “ Cato, in his Origines,
tells us that it was an old custom at banquets for those
who sat at table to sing to the flute the praiseworthy
deeds of famous men.”1 He further regrets that these

1 Quaestioncs Tuscul. iv. 2.


lays had perished in his time. Other writers give similar
testimony; and it is highly probable that the stories of the
warlike deeds of Iloratius, Mucius, Camillns, etc., were
largely poetic fictions, designed to be sung in the halls of
the great nobles of these clans. We find here no clustering
of legend round the names of single heroes, as in ancient
Greece. The scope of Homan thought lay below the level
of the demigods. It was practical throughout, and per-
mitted but minor deviations from the actual events of
history. Thus Roman legend is more in the vein of that
of Persia, which was spread over a long line of fabulous
kings, instead of concentrating itself around a few all-
glorious champions. Rome, however, produced no Fir-
dusi to embalm its legends in the life-like form of song.
Yet the history of Livy may almost be called an epic in
prose. It is the nearest approach which Rome made to a
national epic, and prose as it is, the great work of Livy
deserves to be classed among the heroic epics of the

It is in strong confirmation of the intellectual energy of
the Aryans to find that the remaining and more barbaric
branches of the race, equally with the Greeks and Hindus,
produced their epics of native growth. And it is of inter-
est to find that the Teutonic and Celtic epic cycles display
the true epic condition of the concentration of a series
of heroic lays around one great national hero. With the
Teutonic people a native Homer arose to give epic shape
to the floating lays of the past. This cannot be affirmed
of the Celts, whose ancient heroes owed their final glory
to foreign hands.

The Germans possess more than one collection of an-
tique lays, such as the poem of Gudrun, and the Helden-


buck, or Book of Heroes. But it is to the Nibelungen-lied
that they proudly point as a great national epic, the out-
growth of their heroic age. Nor is this pride misplaced.
The song of the Nibelung is undoubtedly a great and
noble work, unsurpassed in the circle of primitive warlike
epics except by the unrivalled Iliad. It is full of the
spirit of the old German lays, such as Tacitus tells us the
Germans of his time composed in honor of their great
warriors. It is full also of mythological elements, to such
an extent that it is difficult to discriminate between the
deific and the human origin of its heroes. In its central
hero, Siegfried, the Achilles of the song, and in the heroic
maiden Brunhild, we undoubtedly have mythological char-
acters. But in others, such as Etzel and Dietrich, can be
traced such well-known historical personages as Attila,
the leader of the Iluns, and Theodoric, the Gothic king.
Siegfried and Brunhild appear in other legends besides
those of the Nibelung, and we find the former in the Vol-
sung lay of the Eddas as Sigurd, who fought with the
dragon Fafnir for the golden hoard. This golden hoard
is a moving impulse in the Teutonic legendary cj'cle.
Siegfried has become the possessor of the enchanted treas-
ure of the Nibelungs, and, like Achilles, has been made
invulnerable, except in a spot between his shoulders, which
replaces the heel of Achilles.

But the hoard of gold is a secondary motive in the
Nibelungen-lied. Its mythologie fiction has almost van-
ished, and has been replaced by human motives, human
passions, and human deeds. Man has dwarfed the gods in
this outcome of German thought. It is the truly human
passion of jealousy, the hot rivalry of the two queens,
Brunhild and Kriemhild, and the bitter thirst of the latter


for revenge, that carry us through its stirring epic cycle
of treachery, war, and murder. There is nothing in the
whole circle of song more terrible than the finale of this
vigorous poem, the pitiless battle for vengeance in the
blood-stained banquet-hall of the Huns. Of the name of the
poet who shaped the old ballads into the enduring form of
the Nibelungen-lied we have no more than a conjectural
knowledge. This work was apparently done about the
year 1200 ; but the lays themselves perhaps reach back to
the fifth or sixth centuries. The epic work was done by a
master-hand, who has moulded the separate songs, sagas,
and legends into a well-harmonized single poem with a
judgment and ability that shows the possession of a vigor-
ous genius.

The Nibelungen-lied is not a courtly poem. It is full
of the rudeness and passion of a barbaric age, though the
conditions of Middle-Age society, with its combined cru-
elty and chivalry, and the sentiment of the age of the
Minnesingers, have not been without their effect in soften-
ing the spirit of the older lays, and in giving a degree of
poetic splendor to the crude boldness of archaic song. It
falls far below the Iliad in all that constitutes a great
work of art, yet it is instinct with a fervent imagination,
a fiery energy, and a truly epic breadth of incident. Its
descriptive power, the fine characterization of its person-
ages, and the skilful handling of the plot, indicate both
an age of considerable literary culture and a high degree
of poetic genius in the narrator, while the Teutonic spirit
is shown in its deep feeling for the profound and mysteri-
ous in human destiny. Opening with a calm and quiet
detail of peaceful incidents, we soon find the poem plung-
ing into the abyss of jealousy, rivalry, murder, and all the



fiercer passions. The hand of the assassin finds the vul-
nerable spot in Siegfried’s body, the fatal spot left un-
bathed by the magic dragon’s blood, and he falls a victim
to Brunhild’s relentless hate. From this point onward the
poem gathers force as it flows, until it sweeps with the
fury of .a mountain-torrent toward its disastrous finale
in the terrible retribution exacted by the hero’s vengeance-
brooding wife. The death-dealing spirit of ancient trag-
edy finds its culmination in the story of awful bloodshed in
which the murderons Hagen and his companions meet their
deserts at the court of the Huns. The terrible energy with
which the poem closes finds nothing to surpass it in the
most vigorous scenes of Homer’s world-famous works.

One more poem of epic character, the product o'f the
Teutonic Muse, may be here mentioned,—the most archaic
and barbarous of all epic songs. This is the primeval
English epic, the poem of Beowulf,—the work of the
Anglo-Saxons in their days of utter barbarism and heathen-
ism, probably before they left their home on the Continent
to fall in piratical fury on England’s defenceless shores.
We have here no chivalry, no sentiment, no softness. All
is fierce, rude, and savage. The superstitions of an age of
mental gloom form the web of the poem, which is shot
through and through with the threads of mythologie lore.
It is, as Longfellow remarks, “like a piece of ancient
armor, — rusty and battered, and yet strong.” The style
is of the simplest. The bold metaphorical vein of later
Anglo-Saxon poetry is wanting; the poet seems intent
only on telling his story, and has no time for episodes and
metaphors. Yet Beowulf is the far-off progenitor of the
knight-errant of chivalry; and the song is such as the un-
cultured, yet vigorous-minded, bards of the heathen Saxons


might have sung in the rude halls of half-savage thanes,—
ale-quaffing, stool-seated Berserkers, listening in the light
of flaring and smoking torches to the stirring lay of human
prowess and magic charms.

AYe are told how Beowulf, the sea Goth, fought unarmed
with Grendel the giant, and destroyed the monster, after
the latter had slain scores of beer-drunken doughty Danes
in the great hall of King Hrothgar the Scylding. There
succeeded a terrible fight in the dens whither Beowulf
had followed the GrendeTs mother, a witch-like monster.
Here he slew dragons and monsters that blocked his way;
and after a hard struggle with the grim old-wife, seized a
magic sword which lay among the treasures of her dwell-
ing, and “with one fell blow let her heathen soul out of
its bone house.” 1 To this strongly told bit of heathen lore
are added eleven more cantos, relating the deeds of the
sea-king in his old age, when he fought with a monstrous
fire-drake which was devastating the land. He killed this
creature, and enriched the land with the treasure found in
its cave ; yet himself died of his wounds.

Here again we have the magic treasure of Teutonic lore,
destined to be fatal to its possessor, as the Nibelung
hoard was to the hero Siegfried. It is undoubtedly an out-
growth of Northern mythology, and perhaps had its origin
in the treasures of the dawn or of the summer of ancient
Aryan myth. As an epic, the poem possesses much
merit. It is highly graphic in its descriptions, while the
story of its battles, its treasure-houses, the revels and
songs in the kings’ halls, and the magical incidents with
which the poem is filled, are told with a minuteness that
brings clearly before our eyes the life of a far ruder age
1 Longfellow, Poets and Poetry of Europe, p. 4.


than is revealed by any other extended poem. As Long-
fellow sa}Ts, “ we can almost smell the brine, and hear the
sea-breezes blow, and see the mainland stretch out its
‘sea-noses’ into the blue waters of the solemn main.”
This rude old song, so fortunately preserved, yields us
striking evidence of the intellectual vigor of the fathers of
the English race.

The Celtic Aryans have been quite as prolific as any
other branch of the race ; and though they present us with
no completed epic, they have preserved an abundance
of those heroic tales which form the basis of epic song.
While the Germans of the Continent and the Saxons of
England were plunged in the depths of barbarism, the
Irish Celts manifested a considerable degree of literary
activity, and produced works on a great variety of subjects,
whose origin can be traced back to the early centuries of
the Christian era. Among these were numerous heroic
legends which centred around two great traditional cham-
pions of the past. One of these cycles of epic la}7s, whose
heroes have almost vanished from the popular mind, relates
the deeds of a doughty hero, Cuchulaind, of whose mighty
prowess man}7 stirring stories are told. The central tale is
the Tain Bo Cuailnge, or the “Cattle Spoil of Cualnge,”
which tells how Cuchulaind defended Ulster and the mystic
brown bull of Cualnge single-handed against all the forces
of Queen Medb of Connaught, the original of the fairy-
queen Mab. Around this vigorously told story cluster
some thirty others, descriptive of the deeds of the hero
Cuchulaind, of Medb the heroine, and of many great cham-
pions of the past. As a whole, it forms a complete epic
cycle, and needed only the shaping and pruning hand of
some able poet to add another to the national epics of


the world. These legends, as they exist now, are in
twelfth-century manuscripts, of mixed prose and verse;
hut for their origin we must go hack to the vanished hards
of many centuries preceding.

In addition to this epic cycle of heroic song, the Irish
have the fortune to possess another, equally extensive, and
of much more modern date,—the story of Finn, the son
of Cumall, who is still a popular hero in Ireland, though
his predecessor has long heen forgotten. Finn and the
Fennians may have had a historical basis, though there can
he very little of the historical in the stories relating to
them, with their abundance of magical incidents and extra-
ordinary adventures. The Fennian tales probably only be-
gan to he popular about the twelfth century, and new ones
continued to appear till a much later period, one of them
being as late as the eighteenth century. These legends
are very numerous, and they may claim to have found their
epic poet in a bard of alien blood; for it seems certain
that the heroes of both these cycles of songs were popu-
lar in the Highlands of Scotland, and that Macpherson’s
Ossian, though doubtless due, as a poem, to his own
mind, contains elements derived by him from the popular
Highland heroic lore. Ossian is Oisin, the son of Finn,
while the hero himself is represented in Fingal; and char-
acters of both the Irish legendary cycles are introduced.
Much as the statement of Macpherson concerning the
origin of this poem has been questioned, it may have
equal claim to the title of a naturally evolved epic as the
Nibelungen-lied or the Iliad. For in none of these cases
are we aware to what an extent the final poet manipulated
his materials, or how greatly he transformed the more an-
cient lays and legends.


The Welsh division of the Celts seems to have been
nearly as active as the Irish in literary work, and pro-
duced its distinct epic cycle in the heroic lays of King
Arthur, — the popular hero of the age of chivalry and of
modern English epic song. This hero of fable, with his
Round Table of noble knights, and the deeds of the
enchanter Merlin, was first introduced to Middle-Age
Europe in the fabulous British history of Geoffrey of
Monmouth, written early in the twelfth century. The
Arthurian legends yielded nothing that we can call an epic,
but they gave inspiration to a marvellous series of rhymed
romances, the work of the French Trouvères. The French,
however, were not without a native hero of romance
of older date in their literature than the Arthur myths.
This was their great King Charlemagne, who, with his
twelve peers, formed the theme of an interminable series
of Chansons de Gestes, or legendary ballads, in which
the epic spirit became diffused through a wide range
of rude and magical romance. King Arthur succeeded
Charlemagne as a popular hero at a period of more cul-
ture and softer manners, and the poems of which he and
his knights form the heroes are the finest in that tedious
series of magical romances with which the Trouvères and
their successors deluged the literature of the chivalric
age, until they finally sank into utter inanity, and were
laughed out of existence by Cervantes in his inimitable
satire of Don Quixote.

In this review of the early poetry of the Aryans there
is one branch of the race }^et to be considered, and one
remaining epic to be described. The Slavonians have
not been without their literary productions, though none
of their poetry has reached the epic stage. But the con-


Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:34:42 PM »

This was deeply worked by Plato, his great disciple,
whose system of Ideas replaced the old systems of things,
and with whom the supreme and all-embracing idea, the
absolute Good, became the God, the divine creator and
sustainer. Finally followed Aristotle, with his strongly
scientific turn of mind and his highly indefinite metaphysi-
cal conception of the fluctuations between Potentiality and



Actuality, the variation from matter to form, from form-
less matter to pure or immaterial form. To these concep-
tions were added cosmological notions largely derived
from the old mythology. But the value of the thought of
Greece was not so much for its deductive as for its induc-
tive labors. It tended constantly toward a scientific
research into the basis of matter and mind, and never
began by cutting loose from the actual, as in Hindu

The mental acumen of these two highly intellectual
branches of the ancient Aryans approached equality; but
the real value of their work differed widely, mainly as
a consequence of their different standpoints of thought.
The speculations of the Greeks were based on observed
facts, those of the Hindus on mythological fancies. As a
consequence, the Greeks have worked far more truly for
the intellectual advancement of mankind. If we come to
glance at modern philosophy, a strikingly similar parallel
appears. The Germans, the metaphysicians of the modern
age, have inclined toward the Hindu line of pure deduc-
tion, and built vast schemes of philosophy with little more
solid basis than the doctrine of emanation. The English
and French, on the contrary, have developed the Greek
line of science, and based their philosophies on observed
facts. Their schemes do not tower so loftily as those of
Germany, but they are built on the ground, and not on
the clouds, and are likely to stand erect when the vast edi-
fices of pure metaphysics have toppled over in splendid but
irremediable ruin.


IT is not our intention to enter upon the task of a
general review of the vast field of Aryan recorded
thought, but merely to offer a comparative statement of
the literary position of the several races of mankind, in
evidence of the superiority of the Aryan intellect. Lite-
rary labor has been by no means confined to this race.
Every people that has reached the stage of even an im-
perfect civilization has considered its thoughts worthy of
preservation, its heroes worthy of honor, its deeds worthy
of record. But so far as the intellectual value of lite-
rary work is concerned, the Aryans have gone almost
infinitely beyond the remainder of mankind.

All early thought seems naturally to have flowed into
the channel of poetry, with the exception of certain dry
annals which cannot properly be classed as literature.
This poetry, in its primary phase, appears to have been
always lyrical. It was apparently at first the lyric of
worship. This was followed by the lyric of action, and
this, in its highest outcome, by the epic,—the combined
and organized phase of the heroic poem. It is of interest
to find that the Aryans alone can be said to have fairly
reached the final stage of the archaic field of thought,
the epic efforts of other races being weak and inconse-
quent, while almost every branch of the Aryan race rose
to the epic literary level.


Of the antique era of the religious lyric little here need
be said. TTe find it in the hymns of the Vedas and of
the Zend-Avesta, in the early traditional literature of
Greece, and in the ancient Babylonian hymns to the
gods, some of which in form and manner strikingly re-
semble the Hebrew psalms. As to the second poetic
period, that of the heroic song, or the record of the
great deeds of the gods and demigods, little trace re-
mains. Heroic compositions, as a rule, have ceased to
exist as separate works, and have either become compo-
nent parts of subsequent epics, or have vanished. As to
valuable epic literature, however, it is nearly all confined
within Aryan limits.

Modern research into the fragmentary remains of the
ancient Babylonian literature has brought to light evi-
dence of a greater activity of thought than we formerly
had reason to imagine. And among the works thus re-
covered from the buried brick tablets of the Babylonian
libraries are portions of a series of mythological poems
of a later date than the hymns. These productions are
considered to form part of an antique and remarkable
poem, with a great solar deity as hero, — an epic centre of
legend into which older lays have entered as episodes.
It appears to have consisted of twelve books, of which
we possess two intact, — the Deluge legend, and that
of the descent of Istar into Hades ; while part of a third
exists, in which is described the war of the seven evil
spirits against the moon. The Assyrians are supposed
to have also had their epic, in imitation of this older
work, and the Semiramis and Ninas of the Greeks are
considered by M. Lenormant to have been heroes of this
legendary circle of song. However that be, it cannot be


claimed that either in poetic or artistic ability the Se-
mitic mind displayed any exalted epic powers. So far as
we are able to judge of this work from its scanty remains,
it is devoid of all that we are accustomed to consider
literary merit, and is full of hyperbolical extravagance.

Of the Semitic races, indeed, the Hebrews alone pro-
duced poetry of a high grade of merit. Of this Hebrew
literature we shall speak more fully farther on, and it
must suffice here to say that none of it reached the epic
level. It is, as a rule, lyrical in tendency. Hebrew
literature, however, is not without its heroic characters.
We find them in Noah, Samson, David, Daniel, and
others who might be named; but none of these were^
made heroes of song, but were dealt with in sober prose,
— as we shall find later on was the fate of the heroes
of Roman legend. The Hebrew intellect, indeed, was
largely practical in its tendencies, its imagination was
subdued, and though its literature contains many excit-
ing legendary incidents, these are all couched in quiet
prose, while its poetry fails to rise above the lyric of
worship or of pastoral description. The nearest approach
to an epic poem is the grand book of Job, of unknown
authorship. The literature of Assyria, of which abundant
relics are now coming to light, is yet more practical in
character than that of the Hebrews, and resembles that
of the Chinese in literalness. There is no poetry ap-
proaching in merit the elevated lyrical productions found
in the Hebrew scriptures, and, like the Chinese, it is largely
devoted to annals, topography, and other practical matters.
The Semitic race as a whole appears to have been deficient
in the higher imagination, though possessed of active powers
of fancy. To the latter are due abundant stores of legend,


often of a highly extravagant character; but we nowhere
find an instance of those lofty philosophical conceptions,
or of that high grade of epic song or dramatic composi-
tion, which are such frequent products of Aryan thought,
and which indicate an extraordinary fertility of the imagi-
nation in the Aiyan race.

Egypt produced little work of merit from a literary
point of view. The religious literature consists of cer-
tain hymns of minor value, and the well-known “ Ritual
of the Dead.” Similar to this is the “Ritual of the Lower
Hemisphere.” These ritualistic works can scarcely be
called literary productions, and are marked by an inex-
tricable confusion. So far as the display of intellectual
ability is concerned, they are almost an utter void. In
addition to its tyrics, Egypt has one work which has
been dignified with the title of epic, though it should
rather be viewed as an extended instance of those heroic
legends whose confluence is needed to constitute a true
epic production. It forms but the first stage in the pro-
duction of the epic. This poem is credited to a scribe
named Pentaur, and is devoted to a glorification of the
deeds of Rameses II. in a war which that monarch con-
ducted against the Cheta. He seems to have been cut
off from his troops by the enemy, and to have safely
made his Avay back to them. But the poem tells us that
the mighty hero fell into an ambuscade of the Cheta,
and found himself surrounded by two thousand five hun-
dred hostile chariots. Invoking the gods of Egypt, the
potent warrior pressed with his single arm upon the foe,
plunged in heroic fuiy six times into their midst, cov-
ered the region with dead, and regained his army to
boast of his glorious exploits. It is a bombastic and


inartistic production ; but such as it is it seems to have
struck the Egyptian taste as a work of wonder, and has
been engraved on the walls of several of the great tem-
ples of the land. The most complete copy of it is writ-
ten on a papyrus now in the British Museum.

The remaining antique non-Aryau civilization, that of
China, is utterly void of any epic productions, either in
the ultimate or in the germ. The imagination necessary
to work of this kind was wanting to the Chinese. Their
decided practical tendency is abundantly shown in their
close attention to annalistic history and to such sub-
jects as geography, topography, etc. But no heroic le-
gend exists, and but little trace of the devotional poetry
with which literature begins elsewhere. The Confucian
“ Book of Odes,” which contains all we possess of the
antique poetry of China, is mainly devoted to the con-
cerns of ordinary life. It has little of the warlike vein,
but much of the spirit of peaceful repose. We are
brought into the midst of real life, with domestic con-
cerns, religious feeling, and family affection replacing
the wild “outings” of the imagination which are shown
in all the ancient Aryan literature. After the Confucian
period Chinese song gained a somewiiat stronger flight,
and the domestic ballad wras replaced by warlike strains
and mythologie songs. But no near approach to epic
composition wras ever attained.

If now wre enter upon Aryan ground we find ourselves
at once upon loftier peaks of thought, and in a higher and
purer atmosphere. Almost everywhere epic poetry makes
its appearance at an early stage of literary cultivation as
the true usher to the later and more practical branches
of literature. These antique epic creations of the Aryans


may be briefly summarized. As in philosophy, so in po-
etry, India and Greece take the lead; the Ramayana
vying, though at a much lower level of art, with the Iliad
of Greece. Of the two ancient epics of the Hindus, the
Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the former is the older,
while it is more the work of a single hand, and shows few
signs of that epic confluence of legend which strongly
characterizes the latter. And of the two, the Ramayana
is the more mythological, the Mahabharata the more
historical in character.

Legend credits uorthérn India in these early days with
two great dynasties of kings, known respectively as the
Solar and the Lunar dynasties. The Ramayana describes
the adventures of a hero of the solar race. Rama, the
hero, is a lineal descendant of the god of the sun, and
is himself adored as an incarnation of Vishnu. Every-
where in the poem we find ourselves on mythological
ground, and the only historical indication it contains is that
of the extension of the Aryan conquest southward toward
Ceylon. The story describes the banishment of Rama
from his hereditary realm and his long wanderings through
the southern plains. His wife, Sita, is seized by Ravana,
the giant ruler of Ceylon. Rama, assisted by Sugriva, the
king of the monkeys, makes a miraculous conquest of
this island, slays its demon ruler, and recovers his wife,
the poem ending with his restoration to his ancestral

The style of this poem is of a high grade of merit, and
it takes a lofty rank among the works of the human im-
agination. In the first two sections there is little of
extravagant fiction, though in the third the beauty of its
descriptions is marred by wild exaggerations. It is


evidently in the main the work of one hand, not a welding
of several disjointed fragments. There are few episodes,
while the whole latter portion is one unbroken narrative,
and there is shown throughout an unvarying skill and
poetical power and facility. It is credited to a single poet,
Valmiki. This name signifies “ white ant-hill,” and it
is very doubtful if it represents a historical personage.
However that be, the Ramayaua is a homogeneous and
striking outcome of ancient thought.

The Mahabharata is a work of very different character.
It is rather a storehouse of poetic legends than a single
poem, and is evidently the work of many authors, treating
subjects of the greatest diversity. It is of later date than
the Ramayana, and more human in its interest, but is far
below it in epic completeness and unity. Y"et it is not
without its central story, though this has almost been lost
under the flood of episodes. It is the epic of the heroes of
the lunar dynasty, the descendants of the gods of the
moon, as the Ramayaua is the heroic song of the solar
race. Bharata, the first universal monarch, who brought
all kingdoms “under one umbrella,” has a lineal descend-
ant, Kuril, who lias two sons, of whom one leaves a hun-
dred children, the other but five. The fathers dying, the
kingdom is equitably divided among these sons, the five
Pandavas and the hundred Kauravas. The latter grow
envious, wish to gain possession of the whole, and pro-
pose to play a game of dice for the kingdom. The
Pandavas lose in this strange fling for a kingdom ; but the
Kauravas agree to restore their cousins to their share in
the throne if they will pass twelve years in a forest and
the thirteenth year in undiscoverable disguises. This
penance is performed; but the Kauravas evade their


promise, and a great war ensues, in which the Pandavas
ultimately triumph. "Whether this war indicates some
actual event or not, is questionable; but this part of the
work is well performed, the characters of the five Pandavas
are finely drawn, and many of the battle-scenes strikingly

But this main theme forms but a minor portion of the
work. It is full of episodes of the most varied character,
and contains old poetical versions of nearly all the ancient
Hindu legends, with treatises on customs, laws, and re-
ligion, — in fact, nearly all that was known to the Hindus
outside the Vedas. The main story is so constantly
interrupted that it winds through the episodes “like a
pathway through an Indian forest/’ Some of these
episodes are said to be of “rare and touching beauty,”
while the work as a whole has every variety of style, dry
philosophy beside ardent love-scenes, and details of laws
and customs followed b}T scenes of battle and bloodshed.
Many of the stories are repeated in other words, and the
whole mass, containing more than one hundred thousand
verses, seems like a compilation of many generations of
Hindu literary work. Yet withal it is a production of high
merit and lofty intellectual conception.

In regard to the Persian branch of the Indo-Aryans, it
37ields us no ancient literary work in this exalted vein.
That considerable legendary poetry existed we have good
reason to believe; but it does not seem to have centred
around a single hero, as elsewhere, but to detail the deeds
of a long series of legendaiy kings, many of wiiom were
undoubtedly historical personages. It was late in the
history of the Persians when these legends became con-
densed into a single work, the celebrated Shah Xamah of


Firdusi, which forms, as Malcolm observes, “ deservedly
the pride and delight of the East.” It professes to be but
a versified history of the ancient Persian kings, from the
fabulous Kaiomurs to the fall of the second empire under
Yezdijird. But no trace remains of the documents em-
ployed by the poet, while his work is to so great an extent
legendary that it has all the elements of the epic except
that of a central hero. The work itself displays the
highest literary skill and poetical genius, and, as Sir John
Malcolm remarks, u in it the most fastidious reader will
meet with numerous passages of exquisite beauty.” The
narrative is usually very perspicuous, and some of the
finest scenes are described with simplicity and elegance of
diction, though the battle-scenes, in which the Persians
most delight, are by no means free from the Oriental
besetting sin of hyperbole.

Of the epic poetry of Greece, and particularly the great
works attributed to Homer, little here need be said. The
Iliad and Odyssey are too well known to readers to need
any description. Modern research has rendered it very
probable that these works, and the Iliad in particular, are
primitive epics in the true sense, being condensations of
a cycle of ancient heroic poetry. The antique Greek
singers were not without an abundant store of stirring
legends as subject-matter for their songs. These legends
have become partly embodied in poetry, partly in so-called
history; and in them mythology, history, and tradition
are so mingled that it is impossible to separate these con-
stituents and distinguish between fact and fancy. But of
all the legendary lore of the Greeks, that relating to the
real or fabulous siege of Troy seems most to have roused
the imagination of the early bards, and brought into being


a series of the most stirring martial songs. These as a
rule centred around the deeds of one great hero, Achilles,
the scion of the gods, the invulnerable champion of the
antique world.

Little doubt is entertained by critics that the Iliad con-
tains the substance of a number of ancient lays devoted
to this one attractive subject. But if so, there can scarcely
be a doubt that these lays were fitted by a single skilful
hand into the epic framework of the Homeric song. AYe
may as well seek to divide Shakspeare into a series of
successive dramatists as to break up Homer into a c}Tcle
of antique poets. Alen of his calibre do not arise in
masses, even in the land of the Hellenes ; and though there
can be little question that older material made its way into
the Iliad, there can be as little question that it was wrought
into its present form by one great genius, and fitted by one
skilful hand into the place which it occupies. Another
theory offered is that the nucleus of the poem and a portion
of its incidents are the work of a single great poet, while
episodes of other authorship were worked into it at a later
period. But a more probable supposition would seem to
be that Homer, like Shakspeare, dealt with heroic legends
of earlier origin, ancient ballads whose substance w*as
worked into the nucleus of the poem by that one great
genius whose vital intellect inspirits the whole song.
This would explain at once the discrepancies that exist
between the subject and handling of the several cantos,
and the considerable degree of unity and homogeneity
which the poem as a whole possesses. It need scarcely
here be said that the Iliad stands at the head of all epic
song, alike in the manner of its evolution, the lofty poetic
genius which it displays, and the exquisite beauty of its


Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:33:14 PM »

teaches the spirit, and also provides it with a charm to
unlock the gates that lead to the fields of Ra, the sun-god.
Finally, if the heart prove not too light, and the soul pure,
the members of the body, renewed and purified, are re-
turned to the spirit, and the waters of life are poured upon
it by the goddesses of life and the sky. It finally enters
the realm of the sun, and vanishes in a highly vague iden-
tification with Osiris, or with the deific powers generally.
The idea of metempsychosis also confusedly mingles with
this, and animal-worship seems at the basis of the Egyptian
mythology. The thought of Egypt never fairly rises above
the body. There is no entrance into that pure atmosphere
of soul-existence in which the Hindu philosophers are at

The philosophical system of China is a curious one,
which, however, we can but very briefly describe. It had
a continuous development, its antique basis being in the
mystical symbols of Fu-hi, — a monarch of some such
dubious date as 2800 n. c. These symbols consisted simply
of a whole and a divided line, constituting the diagram

(----,------). These lines were variously combined, so

as to make in all sixty-four combinations. On this strange
arrangement of lines, which very probably was connected
with some ancient s}’stem of divination, an abundance of
thought has been exercised, and the whole S3Tstem of
Chinese philosopli}7 gradually erected. The first great
name in this development is that of Wan "Wang, of about
1150 b. c. Being imprisoned for some political offence,
this antique philosopher occupied himself in studying out
the meaning of these combinations. The result of his
reflections was the Y-King, — among the most ancient
and certainly the most obscure and incomprehensible of all


known books. The Y-King comprises four parts. First
are the sixty-four diagrams, each with some name attached
to it; as heaven, earth, fire, etc. Second, are a series of
obscure sentences attached by Wan Waug to these dia-
grams. Third, we have other ambiguous texts by Tcheou-
king, the son of Wan Wang, the Chinese Solomon.
Fourth, are a host of commentaries, many centuries later.
The whole forms an intricate system of philosophy, which
is based on the idea of the duality of all things. The
whole lines represent the strong, the divided lines the weak,
or the active as contrasted with the passive. These indi-
cate two great primal principles,— Ycing, the active, Yin,
the passive, — which owe their origin to the Tai-lceih, the
first great cause. All existence comes from the Yang and
the Yin: heaven, light, sun, male, etc., from the Yang;
earth, darkness, moon, female, etc., from the Yin. This
development of the idea is mainly the work of the later
commentators. Tai-keih, or the grand extreme, is the
immaterial producer of all existence. Yang and Yin are
the dual expression of this principle, — Yang the agency of
expansion, Yin that of contraction. When the expansive
activity reaches its limit, contraction and passivity set in.
Man results from the utmost development of this pulsating
activity and passivity. His nature is perfectly good ; but
if he is not influenced by it, but by the outer world, his
deeds will be evil. The holy man is he with full insight
of this twofold operation of the ultimate principle, and of
these holy men Confucius was the last. Such is the
developed philosophy of the Y-King as expressed by
Choo-tsze (1200 a. d.), — one of the latest of the many
commentators who have sought to unfold the Fu-hi symbols
into a philosophy of the universe.


Of the best-known Chinese philosophers, Confucius and
Lao-tsze, the system of the former was simply a creed of
morals ; that of the latter was but an unfoldment of the
dual idea. To Lao-tsze the primal principle was a great
something named the Tao, concerning which his ideas seem
exceedingly obscure. Tao was the unnamable, the empty,
but inexhaustible, the invisible, comprising at once being
and not-being, the origin of all things. All things are
born of being. Being is born of not-being. All things
originate from Tao. To Tao all things return. We have
here a vague conception of the emanation philosophy.
The creed of the faith is based on the virtue of passivity.
Not to act, is the source of all power. The passive con-
quers. Passivity identifies one with Tao, and yields the
strength of Tao to the believer. A certain flavor of
Buddhism pervades this theory, and it may have had
its origin in a previous knowledge of the Buddhistic creed
by the philosopher; but it is very far below Buddhism in
distinctness of statement and clearness of thought. Yet
it is remarkable as the highest philosophical product of
the Chinese mind.

If now we come to consider the ancient Aryan philos-
ophies, it is to find ourselves in a new world of thought,
a realm of the intellect that seems removed by a wide gulf
from that occupied by the contemporary peoples of alien
race. These philosophies are the work of two branches of
the Aryans, the Hindu and the Greek, some brief account
of whose systems of thought may be here given.

Of the peoples of the past only four can be said to have
risen, in their highest thought, clearly above the level of
mythology. These were the Chinese and the Hebrews, the
Hindus and the Greeks ; to whom may be added the pupils


of the last, the Romans. But of these the first two
named cannot be fairly said to have ever had a mythology.
And of them the Hebrews originated no philosoph}7, while
out of the countless millions of the Chinese race, with
their constant literary cultivation, only one or two phi-
losophers arose ; and their systems of thought, perhaps
devised under Buddhistic inspiration, have been allowed
to decline into blank idolatry or unphilosophical scepticism.
Far different was the case in India. There we find a con-
nected and definite system of philosophy growing up, the
outcome of the thought of a long series of Bralnnanic
priests, grounded in the childlike figments of mythology,
but developing into a manly vigor of reasoning that has
never been surpassed in the circle of metaphysical thought.
It was a remarkable people with whom we are now con-
cerned, — a people that dwelt only in the world of thought,
and held the affairs of real life as naught. This world
was to them but a temporal^ resting-place between two
eternities, a region of probation for the purification of the
soul. With the concerns of the eternities their minds were
steadily occupied, and time was thrust aside from their
thoughts as a base prison into which their souls had been
plunged to purge them of their sins.

Their effort to solve the mystery of existence called forth
an intricate and clearly thought-out conception of the or-
ganization of the universe, in which reason and imagina-
tion were intimately combined, — the latter, however, often
so unchecked and extravagant as to reach heights of un-
told absurdity. The final outcome of this activity of
thought was a philosophical system strikingly like that
reached by the Egyptians, — a dogma of emanation and ab-
sorption, with intermediate stages of transmigration. But


instead of the vapor-shrouded eternity of Egyptian thought,
we here look into the past and the future of the universe
through a lens of clear transparency.

We have now to deal with a thoroughly pantheistic doc-
trine of the universe, — the abundant fountain of all sub-
sequent pantheism. In the beginning Brahma alone ex-
isted,— an all-pervading, self-existent essence, in which
all things yet to be lay in the seed. This divine progeni-
tor, the illimitable essence of deity, willed the universe into
being from his own substance, created the waters by med-
itation, and placed in them a fertile seed, which developed
into a golden egg. From this egg Brahma, the impersonal
essence, was born into personal being as Brahma, the cre-
ator of all things. We need not here concern ourselves
with the many extravagances of the ardent Hindu im-
agination, that overlaid this conception and the subsequent
work of creation with an endless array of fantastic adorn-
ments, but may keep to the central core of the Brahmanic
philosophy. It will suffice to say that from the imper-
sonal, thus embodied as the personal Brahma, all things
arose, —the heavens, the earth, and the nether realm, with
all their countless inhabitants. All were emanations from
the primal Deity, and all were destined to be eventually
re-absorbed into this deity, so that existence should end, as
it had begun, in Brahma alone. But with this descent from
the infinite had come evil, or imperfection. Though a por-
tion of the divine essence entered into all things, animate
and inanimate, yet all things had become debased and im-
pure. The one perfect being had unfolded into a limitless
multitude of minor and imperfect beings. Such was the
first phase of the mighty cycle of existence. The second
phase was to be one of re-absorption, through which the


multitude of separate beings would become lost in the one
eternal being, and Brahma — who had never ceased to
constitute the sole real existence — would regain his pri-
mal homogeneous state.

But divinity had become debased in the forms of men
and animals, angels and demons. How was it to be puri-
fied, and rendered fit for absorption into the divine essence?
In this purification lay the terrestrial part of the Hindu
pantheism. To prepare for re-absorption into Brahma was
the one duty of man. Attention to the minor duties of life
detracted from this. Evil deeds still further debased the
soul. The great mass of mankind died unpurified. But
the divine essence in them could not perish. And in most
cases it had become unfit to inhabit so high a form as the
human body. Therefore it entered, after the death of men,
into the bodies of various animals, into inanimate things,
and even into the demonic creatures of the Hindu hell, in
accordance with its degree of debasement. It must pass,
for a longer or shorter period, through these lower forms
ere it could be fitted to reside again in the human frame.
And after having by purification passed beyond the human
stage, it still had a series of transmigrations to fulfil, in
the bodies of angels and deities, before it could attain the
finality of absorption. To this ultimate, all Nature, from
its highest to its lowest, was endlessly climbing. Every-
thing was kindled by a spark of the divine essence, and all
existence consisted of souls, in different stages of embodi-
ment, striving upward from the lowest hell to the loftiest
stage of divinity.

For these many manifestations of the one eternal soul
there was but one road to purification. This lay through
subjection of the senses, purity of life, and knowledge of


the deity. Asceticism, mortification of the animal in-
stincts, naturally arose as a resultant of this doctrine.
The virtues of temperance, self-control, and self-restraint
were the highest of human attainments. To reduce the
flesh and exalt the soul was the constant effort of the
ascetic, and to wean the mind from all care for the things
of this life was the true path toward purification. Finally,
knowledge of the deity could come only through a deep
study of the Institutes of religion, rigid observance of its
requirements, and endless meditation on the nature and the
perfections of the ultimate essence,—the eternal deity.
By thus giving the soul a steadily increasing supremacy
over the matter that clogged and shadowed its pure
impulses, in the end it would become utterly freed from
material embodiment, and fitted to enter its final state
of vanishment into the supreme. Just what this final
state signified, whether the soul was or was not to lose all
sense of individuality, is a question wdiose answer is not
very clearly defined; and it is probable that the Hindu
thinkers, bold as they were, shrank before this utterly in-
soluble problem, and left the final abyss uninvaded by their
daring speculations.

It is a grand system of thought which we have here very
imperfectly detailed, an extraordinary one to have been
devised at so early a period, and by a people just emerging
from barbarism into civilization. No higher testimony to
the superiority of the Aryan intellect could be offered than
to bring this clearly outlined cosmical philosophy into com-
parison with the confused, imperfect, and vapory concep-
tions of the Egyptian and the Chinese mind. It must be
said, however, that it offers a conception of man’s obliga-
tions as a citizen of the universe that has proved fatal to


the national progress of the Hindu people. From the
Brahman to the outcast, they have remained politically and
socially dormant, their duties to the world to come dwarf-
ing their duties to the world that is, and the realm of
thought overlaying in their lives the realm of action. No
heroes have risen to lead the Hindu people on the path to
nationality or empire, for thinkers and workers alike have
heen lost in the shadow of a dream. The very thought of
history-writing or history-making has not arisen among
them ; and they have yielded with scarce a struggle to a
long array of foreign conquerors, heedless of who ruled
their bodies while their thoughts continued free.

The philosophy here described was, as we have said, the
work of a long line of priestly thinkers, not of any great
lawgiver of the race. In it we have the highest expres-
sion of the endlessly active Hindu intellect. At a later
date, however, the names of several special thinkers
emerge, each devising some variation in the-details, yet
none deviating from the basic principle of the system.
The mystery of the origin of matter was left unaccounted
for in the ancient Vedanta system ; and its actual existence
was afterward denied, it being declared a mere illusion,
arising from the imperfect knowledge of the soul. Kapila,
the founder of the Sankhya school, attempted to overcome
this difficulty by proclaiming the eternal existence of an
unconscious material principle possessed of self-volition
in regard to its own development. From it all matter had
emanated, and into it all matter would be absorbed. By
the side of this material principle existed a primal spiritual
essence, manifold in its nature, and which from the begin-
ning has entered into and animated matter. This spirit-
ual unintelligence is endued with a subtile body consisting


of intelligence (buclclhi). The Sankhya cleity is a com-
pound of these three elements, — spirit, substance, and

This scheme was followed by that of Patanjali, who
considered the spiritual principle to be possessed of self-
volition, and to exist separate from the co-eternal principle
of matter. But the most striking of these speculative sys-
tems was that of Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, and
the final great Hindu philosopher. This system was in the
line of that of Kapila; but it carried the Hindu vein of
thought to its utmost conceivable extension. It denied
the existence of the soul as a substance. No spiritual es-
sence pervaded the body. It held only certain intellectual
attributes, which would perish with it. But the sum of
each individual’s good and evil actions {Karma) would
survive, to migrate through other bodies, until the evil
became eliminated, and only the good remained. As to the
culminating stage of this process, the Nirvana, whether it
signified the final extinction of evil and the vanishment of
good, an utter and eternal nonentity, or embraced the con-
ception of a conscious existence of the absolutely purified
principle of good, — is a question that has been endlessly
debated, and yet remains unsolved. The system made
provision for the natural disappearance of evil; but the
principle of good remained, and would not down at the
command of thought. Probably the founder of the Bud-
dhistic sect was as deepty lost as the Brahmanic philos-
ophers in the abyss of infinity into which his daring
conception had plunged. It is a depth by which all ex-
plorers have been bafiled, and which the plummet of
thought lias ever failed to sound.

In regard to the manifold philosophies of Greece much


less need here be said. They are far better known to
readers in general, and are to a large extent philosophies
of the earth rather than schemes of the universe. The
imagination of the Greeks was as bold and active as that
of the Hindus ; but it was far more under the control of
the reasoning faculties, and is always subdued and artistic
where that of the Hindus riots in the wildest extravagance.
The Hindu philosophy directly emerged from the mytho-
logy of the Vedas and the sacrificial observances of the
priests, and the steps of its evolution can yet be traced.
The Greek philosophy had no relation to mythology. The
gods of Greece had become so laden with earthly clay that
they had ceased to be fit subjects for any but the vulgar
belief when philosophy first showed its front on the Ionic
shores. Thus the philosophy of Greece was a completely
new growth. Cutting loose from all preceding thought,
the Grecian intellect endeavored to construct a universe
of its own, on the platform of what it saw and what it

The various systems devised need be but rapidly run
over, as they are more matters of ordinary knowledge than
is the Hindu philosophy. The Ionic philosophers, Thales
and his successors, endeavored to arrive at a conception of
all existence from a study of the properties of physical
substances, and the Pythagoreans from a like study of
the properties of number. Next came the Eleatics, with
their system of abstraction. Through the denial of the
actuality of visible existence they arrived at a conception
of pure being,—the basis of all appearance. Heraclitus
followed, with his system of the becoming, — the incessant
flow between finity and infinity, being and not-being. To
these succeeded the Atomistic philosophers, to whom


matter was the basis of being, and force the cause of
movement. The philosophers here named were gradually
advancing toward a theory of the universe; but it was a
theory built up from the ground, rather than brought down
from the infinite, as with the Hindus, — a scientific rather
than an imaginative evolvement. As yet the idea of a
deific principle had not appeared. This was devised by
Anaxagoras, who placed a world-forming Intelligence by
the side of matter. Yet the idea was only feebly grasped.
This Intelligence existed but as a primary impulse, a mov-
ing force to set the universe in motion. The philosophic
mind of Greece had not yet advanced to the grand out-
reach of Hindu thought.

This material phase of philosophizing was followed by
the mental one of the Sophists and of Socrates. Cutting
loose from the conception of matter as the basis of all
things, they came to that of mind. The Sophists stood
forth as the destroyers of the whole preceding edifice of
thought, and Socrates as the originator of a new system
of philosophy, in which the subjective replaced the objec-
tive, and mind subordinated matter. TYith him virtue and
duty became the great principles of existence, thought was
higher than matter, and morality superior to philosophy.
He gave birth to no cosmology, but he turned the atten-
tion of man to a distinctively new field of speculation.

Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:32:14 PM »

It is interesting to find that in the earliest efforts of men
to obtain a philosophical idea of the universe the thinkers
were still ardent believers in mythology, and their efforts
were limited to an attempt to divide the duties of celestial
government among the several deities, and introduce order
into the deific court. This stage of thought we find vaguely
indicated in Egypt and Babylonia, and more definitely in
Greece ; but it yielded no important results in any of these
regions. The disorder was too great, and the mingling of
the deific stories too intricate, to admit of any success in
their rearrangement. In Egypt and Greece, indeed, thought
soon passed beyond this stage ; the gods were left to the
unquestioning worship of the people, and thinkers began
to devise systems of philosoph}T outside the lines of the old
mythology. The same was the case in India ; but nothing
that can be called a philosophy of the universe arose among
the Semites. Certain highly fanciful cosmological ideas
were devised ; but the religious system remained largely in
the henotheistic stage. Of the superior gods of the old
mythology, each Semitic nation selected one as its supreme
deity, or perhaps raised to this honor its own divine ancestor


after his ancestral significance had become greatly dimmed.
These supreme deities became each the Lord, the King, the
Ruler. The cloak of myth fell from their mighty limbs,
and left them standing in severe and unapproachable
majest}", —the sublime rulers of the universe, for whom it
would have been sacrilege to invent a history, and to whom
there was left nothing of human frail t}7, and little of human
sympathy. Such was the course of Semitic thought. It
devised no philosophy, yet it evolved, as its loftiest pro-
duct, a strict monotheism, — a conception of the deity that
grew the more sublime as it divested itself of imaginative

In two branches of the Aryan people the effort to organ'
ize mythology and work over this old S3Tstem of belief into
a consistent theory of the universe attained some measure
of success. These were the Persians and the Teutons.
The Persian system, indeed, which grew up among the
followers of Zoroaster, dealt but little with the old mythol-
ogy, but devised a new one of its own. Yet its philosophy
was largely mythological, and it bears a resemblance to the
Teutonic so marked as to make it seem as if some of their
common ideas were of ancient Aiwan origin. These two
philosophies of mytholog}7, the onl}7 complete ones that
have ever been devised, are of sufficient interest to warrant
a brief description.

The Persian sj^stem is only partly to be ascribed to
Zoroaster. Its complete unfoldment is the work of the
thinkers of a later period. Several of the steps of its
development are yet visible. A comparison of the A vesta
with the Vedas shows interesting indications of a religious
schism between the Hindu and the Iranian sects. The
Devas, the “ shining ones,’’ of the Hindus became the


Daevas, the “ demons,” of Iran. On the contrary, the
Hindu demons, the Asuras, became the Ahuras, the gods
of the Iranians. One of the Ahuras, a Mazda, or world-
maker, was chosen as the special deity of the Zoroastrian
faith, which originally had a monotheistic character, — or
rather it was in principle dualistic, since Ahura-Mazda com-
prised two natures, and combined within one personality
the double deific attributes of good and evil.

At a later period these attributes unfolded into two
distinct beings, and a new supreme god was imagined,

—   Zarvan Akarana (Boundless Time), the primal, creative
power. The m}Tthologic philosophy, as finally completed,
was briefly as follows. In the beginning the Absolute
Being, Zarvan Akarana, produced two great divine beings,

—   Aliura Mazda, and Angra Mainyas, or, as ordinarily
named, Ormuzd and Ahriman. These were respectively the
lords of light and darkness,—Ormuzd a bright, wise, all-
bountiful spirit; Ahriman an evil and dark intelligence.
From the beginning an antagonism existed between them,
which was destined to continue until the end of time. Zar-
van Akarana next created the visible world, destined to
last twelve thousand years, and to be the seat of a terrible
contest between the great deities of light and darkness.

Ormuzd manifested his power by creating the earth and
the heavens, the stars and the planets, and the Fravashi,
the host of bright spirits ; while Ahriman, his equal in cre-
ative ability, produced a dark world, in opposition to the
world of light, and peopled it with an equal host of evil
spirits. This contest between the two great deities was to
last until the end of time. Yet the Spirit of Gloom was
inferior in wisdom to the Spirit of Light, and all his evil
actions finally worked to aid the victory of Ormuzd.


Thus the bull, the original animal, was destroyed by
Ahriman; but from its carcass man came into being under
the creative command of Ormuzd. This new race in-
creased, while the earth became peopled with animals and
plants. Yet for every good creation of Ormuzd, Ahriman
created something evil. The wolf was opposed to the
dog, noxious to useful plants, etc. Man became tempted
by Ahriman in the form of a serpent, and ate the fruit
which the tempter brought him. In consequence, he fell
from his original high estate, and became mortal and
miserable. Yet the human race retained the power of
free-will: they could choose between good and evil;
and by their choice they could aid one or the other of
the great combatants. Each man became a soldier in the
war of the deities.

Between heaven and earth stretched a great bridge,
Chinvat, over which the souls of the dead must pass.
On this narrow path the spirits of the good were conducted
by Serosh, the archangel who led the heavenly host.
But the evil souls fell from it into the Gulf of Duzahk,
to be tormented by the Daevas. Those whose evil deeds
had not been extreme might be redeemed thence by prayer ;
but the deepest sinners must lie in the gulf until the era
of the resurrection. At the end of the great contest a
terrible catastrophe is to come upon all created things.
Man will be converted from his evil ways. Then will
follow a general conflagration. The earth will melt with
fervent heat, and pour down its molten floods into the
realm of Ahriman. A general resurrection of the dead
will attend this conflagration. In the older portions of
the Avestas this seems to be restricted to the soul; but in
the newer portions the resurrection of the body is indi-


cated. The souls are clothed upon by new flesh and
bones; friends recognize each other; the just are divided
from the unjust; all beings must pass through the stream
of fire which is pouring down from the molten earth. To
the good it will feel like a bath of warm milk; but the
wicked must burn in it three da}Ts and nights. Then,
purged of their iniquity, they will be received into heaven.
Afterward Ahriman and all his angels will be purified in
the flames, all evil will be consumed, all darkness ban-
ished, and a pure, beautiful, and eternal earth will arise
from the fire, the abode of virtue and happiness for ever-

It is hardly necessary here to call attention to how great
an extent the Semitic cosmogony and religious myths
are counterparts of this Aryan scheme. It will suffice to
say that the Semites seem to have borrowed everything in
their creed that approached an effort philosophically to
explain the universe. The later Semitic creed, that of
Mohammed, is a medley of pre-existing thought. Even
the Persian bridge of the dead appears in it as A1 Sirat,
the razor-edged road from heaven to earth. The Koran
is full of extravagant fancies, but devoid of original ideas.
It is the outcome of the Arabic type of mind, in which
fancy is exceedingly active, but in which the higher powers
of the reason seem undeveloped.

In the Teutonic myths are displayed a system of the
universe which bears certain striking points of resemblance
to that of Persia, though utterly unlike it in its details.
The general ideas of these myths, indeed, are common to
all the Aryan mythologies, and must have been current
in ancient Arya. Thus the Persian Cliinvat, or Knivad,
the bridge of the dead, is paralleled by the Teutonic Pi-


frost and the Yedic “path of Yama,” the “cows’ path,”
which passes over the abyss of Tartarus to the land of the
wise Pitris, the fathers of the nation. In this mythical
bridge both the Milky AVay and the rainbow are symbol-
ized. Such was the explanation given to these striking
natural phenomena by our imaginative and unscientific

But with the Teutonic tribes, and particularly with their
Scandinavian section, we have to do with a people very
different in situation and culture from the Persians. The
latter were a partly civilized people, the former fiercely
barbarous. The latter dwelt in a temperate region, the
former in an arctic land, where ice and cold were the
demonic agents of man’s torment. Yet the strong Aryan
intellect stirred in their minds, and from their ancestral
myths they wrought out a coherent system of the universe,
— the wildest and weirdest that it ever entered the brain
of man to conceive. It was mythology converted into phi-
losophy ; but it was the mythology of the barbaric and
warlike North, with the breath of the arctic blasts blow-
ing through it, and the untamed fierceness of the Norman
vikings in its every strain. This S}Tstem, as fortunately
preserved to us in the Eddas of Iceland, and perhaps
mainly of Scandinavian development, may be here briefly
given, omitting its many side-details. Everywhere it is
full of warfare. The soul of man is free to combat with
the powers of Nature. The gods are alwa}Ts at war. Sun-
shine and growth combat with storm and winter. Frost
opposes fire. Light and heat are in endless conflict with
darkness and cold. The Jotuns, the ice-giants, are the
demons of Scandinavia. The forces of the winter every-
where bear down upon those of the summer, and finally



overwhelm and destroy them. But this battle of the
elements is wrought into a weird story of the conflict of
gods and demons, in which the traces of its origin are
nearly lost.

In the beginning there lay to the south the realm of
Muspell, the bright and gleaming land, ruled by Surtr
of the flaming sword, the swart god. To the north lay
Niflheim, the land of frost and darkness. Between them
was Ginunga-gap, — a yawning chasm, still as the windless
air. From the ice-vapor that rose from Hvergelmir, the
venom-flowing spring of Niflheim, and mingled with the
spark-filled air of Muspell, was born, in Ginunga-gap,
the giant Ymir, the parent of the Jotuns, or frost-giants.
But with Ymir came the primal animal to life, — the cow,
wiiose milk nourished the giant. She licked the salt rime
clumps, and forth came Buri, a great and beautiful being,
the ancestor of the gods. After much gigantic medley the
gods slewr Ymir, wiiose blood drowned all his evil race
except a single pair, wiio escaped, to give rise to a new
Jotun crew. And now the gods began their creative
work. The slain Ymir was flung into the chasm of Gi-
nimga-gap. Here his body formed the earth, his blood
the ocean, his bones the mountains, his hair the trees. The
sky was made from his arched skull, and adorned with
sparks from Muspell. His brain wras scattered in the air,
and became the storm-clouds. A deep sea was caused to
flow around the earth, — the grand, mysterious ocean, the
endless marvel to the Northern mind. The escaped giants
took up their abode in Jotunheim, the frost-realm of the
arctic seas, the ocean’s utmost strand. Between Atgard,
this outer realm, and Midgard, the habitable earth, the
brows of Ymir were stretched as a breastwork against the


destructive powers. From earth to heaven extended
the rainbow bridge Asbru, the iEsirs’ bridge, or Bifrost,
the “trembling mile.” Every day the gods ride up this
bridge to Asgard, the Scandinavian heaven. They ride to
the Urdar fount, which flows from beneath the roots of the
great ash-tree of life, Yggdrasil, there to take counsel con-
cerning the future from the three maidens — the Fast, the
Preseut, and the Future — who daily sit beside the celestial

The first human pair were made by the gods from two
trees on the sea-shore ; their names were Ask and Embla.
To them Odin gave spirit, Hoenir understanding, Lodurr
blood and fair complexion. They received Midgard for
their abode. From them sprang the human family. But
in heaven and earth perpetual warfare raged. The gods
and the frost-giants were endlessly at war. But as Aliri-
man was overcome and fettered by Ormuzd, so Loki, the
wolf, the deceiver of the gods, was bound in chains, and
a serpent placed above him to drop venom on his face.
This venom as it dropped was caught by his wife in a
vessel. Only when she went away to empty the vessel
did the poison-drops reach his face. Then he writhed in
his chains, and earthquakes shook the solid globe.

It is fated that all this shall end in a mighty conflict, in
which gods and demons alike shall be slain, and heaven
and earth disappear. Ragnarok, the “Twilight of the
Gods,” shall be ushered in by a winter three years long.
The crowing of three mighty cocks shall proclaim the fate-
ful da}T. Thereat shall the giants rejoice, the great ash take
fire, and all the powers of destruction — wolves, sea-mon-
sters, hell hounds, and the like — rush to the dreadful fray.
Heimdal. the guardian of the rainbow, shall sound his


mighty horn to warn the gods, who shall rush to counsel
beneath the tree Yggdrasil, that meanwhile trembles to its
deepest roots. From the East shall come the frost-giants
in a mighty ship, while another ship, made of dead men’s
nails and steered by Loki, brings the troop of ghosts.
Surtr of the flaming sword, the ruler of Muspell, shall
thunder with his swart troop over the bridge of the gods,
his fiery tread kindling it into a consuming flame as he
rides in grim fury to the stronghold of the deities.

Now meet the combatants, — the gods and the heroes of
Valhalla on the one side ; on the other the giant crew, led
by Fenrir the great wolf, the mighty Midgard serpent, the
terrible Loki, and Hela, the goddess of death. Dreadful
is the combat. Odin fights with the wolf, Thor with the
serpent, Freyr with Surtr, Heimdal with Loki. Death
everywhere treads ; Odin, the king of the JEsir, is swal-
lowed into the yawning gape of his monstrous antagonist.
One by one the mighty combatants fall, while Surtr stalks
terribly over the field, spreading everywhere fire and flame.
All is consumed, the stars are hurled from the sky, the
sun and the moon devoured, and the universe sinks in
utter ruin.

Possibly here ended the original myth. It is an ending
in consonance with the grim temper of the vikings of the
North. But as we have it in the Edda, it goes on to a
future state like that of the Persian myth. After the ruin
of Ragnarok a new heaven and earth shall rise from the
sea. Two gods, Vidar and Vali, and a man and woman
shall survive the conflagration and people the new uni-
verse. The sons of Thor shall come with their father’s
hammer and end the war. Balder the beautiful god and
the blind god Hödr shall come up from hell, and a new


sun, more beautiful than the old, shall gleam in the sky.
This is, briefly told, the Scandinavian scheme of the uni-
verse, — a rude and fierce one, yet instinct with a vigor of
imagination shown nowhere by men of non-Aryan blood.
It is the only pure organization of mythology into a cohe-
rent system that exists; for the Persian myth includes
philosophical ideas which fail to enter into the ruder Scan-
dinavian story of the deeds of the gods, and Greek mythol-
ogy never fairly emerged from its abyss of confusion.

If now we come to consider the mental evolution of
more civilized man, we find everywhere mythology left
for the amusement of the vulgar horde, while the enlight-
ened few devise purely philosophical explanations of the
mystery of the universe. But in comparing the philoso-
phies of the various civilized nations, the Aryans will be
found to soar supremely above the level of all alien peo-
ples. Only two such peoples, Egypt and China, have
devised anything that deserves the title of philosophy; for
nothing of the kind exists in any of the Semitic creeds.
The utmost we find in Babylonia is an effort to form a cos-
mology of strictly mythologie character, — a highly con-
fused affair as imperfectly given by Berosus. The later
attempt made by Mohammed is, so far as it is original,
an absurd tissue of extravagant fancies. There is nothing
to indicate the least native tendency of the Semitic mind
toward philosophy. All their philosophy is borrowed, and
has deteriorated in their hands. It was by stripping the
idea of deity of all mythologie and philosophic figments,
and leaving it in its bare and unapproachable majest}^
that the Semitic intellect reached its highest flight, that
symbolized in the Jehovah of the later Hebrews.

The Egyptian priesthood, on the contrary, appears to


have devised a somewhat advanced system of philosophy,
which bears a singular resemblance to that of Brahman-
ism, though very far below it in the power and clearness
of thought displayed. The transmigration hypothesis, and
the theory of emanation and absorption of souls, are both
indicated in the Egyptian system, though vaguely, and
overlaid with mythological absurdities. There is here
none of the clear-cut reasoning of the Hindus, but an un-
certain wandering of thought from which it needs consid-
erable ingenuity to extract the idea it conceals. The
well-known Ritual of the Dead is the source of our
knowledge of these confused ideas. A copy of this work,
more or less complete, was placed in every Egyptian coffin,
while its more important passages were written on the
wraps of the corpse and engraved on the coffin. It was
necessarily so placed, according to their belief, since it
contained the instructions requisite to convey the soul of
the deceased safely past the dangers of the lower world.
Throughout the whole story physical ideas struggle with
metaphysical. The Egyptian mind failed definitely to rise
above the level of the world of sense.

After death the soul descends with the setting sun into
the nether world. There it is examined and its actions
weighed before Osiris and the terrible forty-two judges.
If it can declare that it has committed none of the forty-
two sius, it is permitted to pass on. It has with it in the
• Ritual prayers to open the gates of the various lower
realms, and to overpower opposing spirits and monsters.
It must be able to name everything which it meets, and
to recognize the gods it encounters. Here we have in-
dications that the soul is returning to its natal home, and
recalling its ante-terrestrial memories. All this the Ritual


Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
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This, the highest, and probably the final, stage in the
evolution of language, has nowhere gained its complete
development. In some languages, as in the modern Ger-
man, which remained unaffected by transplantation and
mixture with a foreign tongue, the synthetic principle is
still vigorously active. The analytic has gained its fullest
development in modern English. This tendency, indeed,
was strongly at work upon the Anglo-Saxon long before
its intermixture with foreign elements. Of all Aryan
dialects it showed the most active native inclination to
analysis. The reduction of words to monosyllables, the
loss of inflectional expedients, and the use of separate
auxiliaries, pronouns, prepositions, etc., made considera-
ble progress in the long dark period before the Norman
Conquest. This latter event intensified the change of
method. The forced mingling of two modes of speech,
each already tending to analysis, and each with but little
literary cultivation, could not but have an important effect.



The synthetic forms rapidly decreased, and there finally
issued a language of elementary structure, largely mono-
syllabic, almost devoid of inflection, and to some extent
displaying a reversion to the root-stage of human speech.

Such is the English of to-day, — the most complete out-
come of linguistic anatysis yet reached, the highest stage
attained in the long pathway of verbal evolution. At first
glance it seems to have moved backward instead of for-
ward. It has approached the Chinese in its loss of inflec-
tion, its monosyllabilism, and its partial replacement of
the grammatical by the syntactical arrangement of the
sentence. Yet this is no real reversion. Our pride in
the richness of Aryan speech as compared with the poverty
and imperfection of the Chinese is apt to blind us to the
fact that the Chinese system has features of decided value.
Similar features have been gained by English speech,
while none of the actual advantages of inflection have been
lost. In the English we perceive a decided advance
toward that simplicity of conditions which marks all
highest results. Nearly every inflectional expedient which
could be spared, or be replaced by an analytic expedient,
has been cast off. The inflection of nouns has almost
vanished. That of adjectives has quite disappeared.
Only in the pronouns does inflection partly hold its own.
The inflectional conjugation of verbs is reduced to a mere
shadow of its former self. The utterly useless gender-
distinctions which yet encumber the languages of Con-
tinental Europe have absolutely vanished.

Nearly all these incubi of language have been got rid of
in English, which has moved out of the shadow of the past
more fully than any other living tongue. It has in great
measure discarded what was valueless, and kept what was


valuable in inflectional speech, adopting an analytic expe-
dient wherever available, though freely using the principle
of synthetic combination of words where the latter yielded
any advantage. It stands in the forefront of linguistic
development, possessed of the best of the old and the
new, having certain links of affinity with every cultivated
type of language that exists, rid of all useless and cum-
bersome forms, yet possessed of a flexibility, a mingled
softness and vigor of tone, a richness of vocabulary, and a
power of expressing delicate shades of thought, in which
it is surpassed by none, and equalled by few of existing

With a brief comparison of the different Aryan lan-
guages this chapter may close. Of all these the Sanscrit
of the Vedas is regarded as the most primitive form, the
one nearest the original Aryan, as the Vedas themselves
are the most ancient record of Aryan thought. It has
preserved many archaic forms which are lost elsewhere,
and without its aid our knowledge of the ancient conditions
of Aryan life would be much reduced. Its syntax is com-
paratively simple, the dominant ancient method of word-
composition taking its place. Its grammatical forms are
very full and complete ; yet in the modern Hindu dialects
the usual reversal of this condition appears. These dia-
lects are marked by an active analytical tendency.

The language of the Zend A vesta of the Persians has
strong marks of affinity to the Vedic dialect. In some
respects it is more archaic; yet as a whole it is younger
in form, the A vestas being of more recent production than
the Pig Veda. In modem Persian, however, the analytic
tendency is very strongly declared, — more so, perhaps,
than in any language except the English, which it resembles


in the simplicity of its grammar. It has even gone so far
as to lose all distinction of gender in the personal pronoun
of the third person. Yet it is said to be a melodious and
forcible language. Its great degree of analytic change is
probably due to the extensive mixture of races that has
taken place on Persian soil.

In regard to the European languages, many efforts have
been made to class them into sub-groups. Thus one
author ranks the Greek, another the German, another the
Slavonic, as nearest the Indo-Persian. One brings the
Celtic nearer than the Greek to the Latin, while the more
common opinion makes it wholly independent. Of these
schemes nothing more need be said, since nothing satisfac-
tory has yet come of them. The Celtic dialects have
certain peculiarities not shared by other members of the
Aryan family, and are ordinarii}7 looked upon as the most
aberrant group. The grammar, indeed, displays features
which seem to indicate a non-Aryan influence. The incor-
poration of the pronoun between the verb and its prefixes
in Irish speech has been imputed by Professor Bliys to a
Basque influence. Some other peculiarities exist which
tend to indicate that the aborigines with whom the Celts
mingled exercised a degree of influence upon their method
of speech.

Of the Teutonic division, the most striking peculiarity is
the possession of the strong, or vowel conjugation, such as
wre have, for instance, in the grammatical variations of
form in u sing,” 4 ‘ sang,” and “sung.” In this respect
the Teutonic makes an approach to the Semitic method
of inflection, though the principle with it is probably of
recent origin. Of the Letto-Slavic group, the Lithuanian
is marked by a highly archaic structure. In some few


points its grammar is of older type than even the Sanscrit.
The Slavonic dialects are characterized by phonetic and
grammatical complexity and a great power of forming
agglutinative compounds. The indication of language is
that the Slavonians have been the least exposed to foreign
influence, and are the nearest to the primitive Aryans and
to their probable Mongolian ancestors, of any section of
the race. As an instance, Sayce1 quotes from the Russian
the two words Bez boga, “ without God.” These can be
fused into one word, from which, by the aid of suffixes,
we obtain bezbozhnui, “godless;” from this is gained
the noun bezbozhnik, “ an atheist,” then the verb bezboz-
hnichut, “to be an atheist;” with a host of derivatives,
of which may be named bezbozhnichestvo, “ the condition
of being an atheist,” and bezbozhnichestvovcU, “ to be in
the condition of being an atheist.” Certainly the Russian
has lost none of the ancient richness of the synthetic
method, or descended into what classicists regard as the
base abyss of analytic speech. The Finns, with whom
the Russians are so mingled in blood, could hardly present
an instance of synthesis more complex than the last named.
This is precisely the condition we should expect to find in
the home-staying section of the Aryan race.

It is to the ancient Greek that we must look for the
most logical and attractive unfoldment of the inflectional
method. Though eminently capable of forming compounds,
it is free from the extravagance displayed by the Sanscrit
in this direction, while its syntax has reached a high level
of development. Finally, in the Latin, as already re-
marked, the analytical grammatical tendency is indicated
in a stronger degree than in any other ancient Aryan
1 Introduction to the Science of Language, ii. 95.


tongue. This has been carried forward through the line
of its descendants, the Romance languages of southwestern
Europe, and is particularly displayed in the French, in
which the spoken has run far beyond the written language
in its tendency to verbal abrasion. As regards grammati-
cal analysis, however, the English, as already remarked,
has gone farther than any modern language, and is only
less bare of inflectional forms than its very remote cousin,
the Chinese. And it may be said, in conclusion, that the
English, while the most advanced in development, has
become the most widespread of Aryan languages; it is
spoken by large populations in every quarter of the earth;
and if any modern language is to be the basis of the future
speech of mankind, the English seems the most probable,
both from its character and its extension, to attain that
high honor.


HE assertion that the Aryans are intellectually su-

perior to the other races of mankind may be held
as not proved by what wre have yet related concern-
ing them. In the growth of the primitive conditions of
religion, statecraft, industry, language, etc., there was no
individual action. These were all results of involuntary
evolution, not of purposive activity of the intellect. The
democratic character of the Aryan political system, for in-
stance, naturally arose from a primitive stage very closely
resembling that attained by the American Indians. The
subsequent spirit of liberty' of the Aryans seems largely
due to the fact that there had also developed among them
a democratic or individual religious system, and that, in
consequence, there existed no strongly organized and influ-
ential priesthood, as elsewhere, to hold their souls in cap-
tivity. Their village community system was a natural
result of the fact that they became agricultural ere any
progress in political organization had been made. The
same result arose from the same conditions in America.
In the primitive agricultural civilizations of Egypt and
China, on the contrary, the political organization prob-
ably preceded the development of agriculture, and patri-
archism became established. The same thought applies to
the Aryan language. Its superiority may be due to the


fact that out of the several possible methods of speech-
evolution the Allans chanced to adopt the one most capa-
ble of high development, and which has, in consequence,
continued to unfold its capabilities while the other types
have long since reached a stage of rigid specialization.

And yet all this must be more than the effect of mere
chance. It would be very surprising if a single race should
have blundered into the best methods of human develop-
ment in all directions. Though in regard to the matters
so far considered there is no probability that individuals
exercised any important voluntary control over the devel-
opment of institutions, yet the collective intellect of the
Aryans could not have been without its directive force.
It undoubtedly served as a rudder to guide the onward
progress of the race and prevent this from becoming the
mere blind drift of chance. This much we clearly perceive,
— that the Aryans nowhere entered into a rigidly special-
ized state. In all the unfoldment of their institutions they
pursued that mid line of progress which alone permits
continued development. If we compare the only one of
the non-Aryan civilizations that has survived to our time,
the Chinese, with those of Aryan origin, this fact will be-
come evident. In all respects, in language, politics, relig-
ion, etc., the Chinese early attained a condition of strict
specialization, and their progress came to an end. For
several thousand }Tears they have remained stagnant, ex-
cept in the single direction of industrial development, in
which some slow progress has been made. Butin all these
respects the Aryans have continued unspecialized, and their
development has been steadily progressive. This progress
yet actively continues ; while there is no hope for China,
except in a complete disruption of its antique system and


a deep infusion of Aryan ideas into the Chinese intellect.
This general Aryan superiority is indicative of a highly
active and capable intellect, even though no one mind ex-
ercised a controlling influence. The general mentality of
the race, the gross sum of Aryan thought and judgment,
must have guided the course of Aryan evolution and kept
our forefathers from those side-pits of stagnation into
which all their competitors fell. During its primitive era
the Aryan race moved steadily forward unto a well-devised
system of organization which formed the basis of the great
development of modern times.

It is our purpose now, however, to consider the unfold-
ment of the intellect at a higher stage, — that in which indi-
viduality came strongly into play, single men emerged from
the mass of men, and great minds brought their strength to
bear upon the movement of human events. It is here that
the superiority of the Aryan intellect makes itself first
specially apparent. The mentality of the race developed
with remarkable rapidity, and yielded a series of lofty con-
ceptions far beyond the products of any other race of man-
kind. A brief comparison of the attainments of the ancient
Aryan intellect with the mental work of contemporary na-
tions cannot fail to show this clearly. ^Ye shall here
concern ourselves with the philosophical productions of
the race, before considering their more general literary

As already said, the human intellect is primarily made
up of two great divisions, the reason and the imagination,
which underlie its more special characteristics. Reason is
based on the practical, imagination on the emotional, side
of thought. These are the conditions which we find in a
specially developed state in the two most distinguishable


primary races of man, the Mongolian and the Negro. The
Mongolian is practical man, the Negro emotional man. In
each of these two races the quality named is present in a
marked degree, while the other quality has attained only
a minor development. The same rule applies to the two
race-divisions of the Caucasians, considered as derivatives
respectively of the two original races. The pure Xantho-
chroi strongly display the Mongolian practicality ; the pure
Melanochroi the Negro emotional excitability. Yet the
one has unfolded into reason, the other into imagination.
But for the complete development of these high faculties
a mingling of the two sub-races seemed requisite. The
practical mental turn of the Xanthochroi needed to be
roused and invigorated by an infusion of the excitable
fancy of the South ; the fanciful mentality of the Melano-
chroi to be subdued and sobered by an infusion of the
practical judgment of the North. As a result arose the
mingled reason and imagination of the Aryan intellect,
each controlling, yet each invigorating the other, until
through their union mentality has reached the acme of its
powers, and human thought has made the whole universe
its field of activity.

Of the non-Aryan civilizations which have attempted to
enter the field of philosophy, three only need be named, —
the Chinese, the Egyptian, and the Babylonian. As for the
American civilizations, they were when destroyed still in
the stage of mythology. Everywhere, indeed, mythology
appears as the result of the earliest effort of the human
mind to explain the mysteries of the universe. The forces
and forms of Nature are looked upon as supernatural be-
ings, with personal histories and man-like consciousness
and thought. This is but little displayed by the practical


Chinese, who had not imagination enough to devise a
mythology. We find it much more strongly manifested by
the Egyptians, who had much of the fervor of the Melano-
chroic fancy.

It was with the detached and often discordant mytholo-
gie figments, produced through a long era of god-making,
that philosophy first concerned itself. When men had
passed through the ancient era of blind worship of the
elements, and begun to think about the theory of the
universe which had grown up involuntarily during the long
preceding centuries, they were not slow to perceive its in-
congruity. Everywhere gods crowded upon gods. Their
duties and attributes clashed and mingled. Their names
flowed together. Their histories overlapped each other.
All was utter confusion and discord of ideas. It was very
apparent that there must be error somewhere. Heaven
and earth could not be governed in this chaotic fashion.
Some order must exist beneath this interminable show of

It is not difficult to understand how this confused intri-
cacy had arisen. There is reason to believe that in ancient
Arya, though many gods were recognized, each worshipper
addressed himself to but one deity at a time, whom he
looked upon as supreme, and whom he invested with all
the deific attributes. This system, named “ henotheism ”
by Max Müller, is the one v'e find in -the hymns of the
Rig Veda. In succession the different gods of the Aryan
pantheon are supreme deities to these antique singers.1

1 “It would be easy to find, in the numerous hymns of the Vedas,
passages in which almost every single god is represented as supreme and
absolute. Agni is called ‘Ruler of the Universe.’ Indra is celebrated
as the strongest god. It is said of Soma that ‘ he conquers every one.’ ”
— Max Muller.


Men’s minds seemed not sufficiently expanded actually to
grasp the thought of more than one god at a time, though
they acknowledged the existence of many. This ascription
of the various duties, powers, and attributes of the deity to
so many different beings, necessarily produced considerable
confusion, which increased with the growth of mythologie
fancies. It grew with particular rapidity in Greece, since
the actively commercial Hellenes imported new gods from
Phoenicia, Ass}wia, and Egypt, and mingled them -with the
tenants of the ancient Aryan pantheon, until the confusion
of ideas became somewhat ludicrous.

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such a cumbrous compound as sev-ish-dir-il-e-me-mek,
u not to be capable of being made to love one another.”
Tenses and moods are indicated in the same manner.
And there is a second, indirect conjugation, based on the
union of the several particles with the auxiliary u to be.”
In this manner many minute shades of meaning can be
expressed. Yet all agglutinative languages are not equally
capable in this respect. Thus the Manclm is nearly as
bare as the Chinese, while the Finnish and the Dravidian
are exceedingly rich. In these languages there is no in-
flectional variation; every word rigidly preserves its
integrity of form. Nor do the particles become welded
to the root, and lose their separate individuality, as in
Aryan speech. Each seems to exist as a distinct integer
in the mind. The only change of form admissible is a
euphonic one, in which the vowels of the suffixes vary to
conform to those of the root. Thus “ to love,” is sev-mek;
“ to write,” is yctz-mcik, —mek becoming mak in harmony
with the variation in the root-vowel. This change of
vowel is destitute of inflectional significance.

AVe have yet to deal witli the final series of languages,
— those organized on wdiat is known as the inflectional
method, in which language has attained its highest devel-
opment and is employed by the most advanced of human
races. Here, however, we have two types of language to
consider,—those known as the Aryan, and the Semitic:
the first, the method employed by the Xanthochroic divi-
sion of the Caucasians; the second, that in use by the
Arabs and other Semites of southwestern Asia.

It is of interest in this connection to perceive how greatly
the Aryan languages have prevailed over those spoken
by Yfelanochroic man, despite the probable great excess


in numbers of the latter. Of distinctive Melanochroic
tongues, the only ones now in existence are the Basque
dialect of Spain, and the languages of the Semites and
Egyptians, the only Melanochroic peoples who escaped
conquest by and assimilation with the Xanthochroi.

It is assumed by many philologists, and not denied by
others, that the Aryan and Semitic types of language are
Inflectional in the same general sense, and that they may
have been derived from one original method of speech,
from which the}" have since developed in unlike directions.
l"et the differences between these two types of speech are
so radical, and the character of their inflectionalism so
essentially different, that it seems far more probable that
they have been separate since their origin, and represent
two totally distinct lines of development from the root-
speech of primitive man.

The common characteristic of Semitic and Aryan speech
is their power of verbal variation. There is no tendency
to preserve the integrity of form of their words, as in
other linguistic types. The root readily varies ; and this
variation is not euphonic, but indicates a change of mean-
ing. Similar variations take place in the suffixes, particu-
larly in Aryan speech ; and the word-compound is welded
into a single persistent word, whose elements cease to
remain distinct in thought. But aside from this common
principle of inflection, the Semitic and Aryan languages
differ widely in character, and display no other signs of

This is what naturally might have been expected if the
Melanochroic and Xanthochroic types of mankind were
the offspring of different original races, and only mingled
after their methods of speech had become well developed.


The steps of progress of Semitic speech have not been
traced, and this linguistic method as yet 3Tields little or
no evidence concerning the origin of the Melanochroi.
The line of development of Aiyan speech is more evident.
In its most archaic form it is but a step removed from the
agglutinative Mongolian type of language, and the latter
could readily be changed into an inflectional type closely
resembling the Aryan by a single step forward in devel-
opment. This fact is in close accordance with the infer-
ence drawn in our first chapter,—that the Xanthochroi are
an outgrowth from the Mongolian race. In some of the
agglutinative tongues the principle of word-synthesis is
carried to an extreme only surpassed in the American dia-
lects, and compounds of ponderous length are produced.
The most archaic forms of Aryan speech greatly resemble
these in the extent to which synthesis is carried, and only
differ in that their root-forms have become flexible, and
that thus a new method of variation of meaning has been
introduced, and one which adds the important principle of
verbal analysis to the original one of synthesis. Thus in
language, as in other particulars, the Xanthochroic Aryans
seem a direct derivative from the Mongolian race.

If now we come to Semitic speech, we meet with a type
of language which displays no affinity to Mongolian or
Aryan speech, and indicates a distinct origin and line of
development. The suffixes and affixes which form such
essential elements of the Aryan languages are almost un-
known to the Semitic. They are used, indeed, but only
to a slight extent and as a secondary expedient. The
method of word-compounding, which is so widely used in
all the languages we have so far considered, is almost
absent from the Semitic type, which in this respect fails


to come lip to the level even of the Chinese. The ruling
principle in Semitic speech is inflectionalism pure and
simple. It is characterized by an internal or vowel inflec-
tion of the root, which has proved so valuable an expedient
as greatly to reduce the necessity of word-compounding,
and render the use of suffixes and affixes unimportant.
The distinction between Aryan and Semitic inflection be-
comes thus clearly outlined. The former possesses vowel-
inflection of the root to a slight degree. Yet this seems
principally of modern origin, while the use of the suffix is
the ruling grammatical expedient. On the contrary, in
Semitic speech vowel-inflection rules supreme, and word-
compounding is so little used that it perhaps formed no
part of the original linguistic idea, but is of later

To so great an extent do the vowels of the Semitic root
change, and so persistent are the consonants, that the lat-
ter are considered as the actual root, there being no basic
root-forms with persistent vowel or vowels. A Semitic
root thus usually consists of three consonants, and changes
its significance with eveiy variation in the vocalization of
these consonants. There is some reason to believe that
originally the roots contained two consonants only; but
at present the three consonants are almost invariably

As an illustration we may offer the frequently quoted
Arabic root q-t-l, which has the general sense of “kill-
ing.” The signification of this root is variously limited by
the vowels used. Thus qatala signifies “ he kills ; ” qutilct,
u he was killed ; ” qutilu, “ they were killed ; ” uqtcd, “ to
kill; ” qatil, “ killing ; ” iqtcd, u to cause killing ; ” quad,
“murder;” qitl, “enemy;” qutl. “murderous;” and so


on through numerous other variations. It may readily be
seen how essentially this linguistic method differs from the
Mongolian and the Aryan, with their intricate use of suf-
fixes. In the Semitic not only special modifications of
sense, but the grammatical distinctions of tense, number,
person, gender, etc., are indicated in the same manner.
The system is extended to cover almost every demand of
language. Each Arabic verb has theoretically fifteen con-
jugations, of which ten or twelve, each with its passive
form, are in somewhat common use. Suffixes, prefixes,
and even infixes are moderately employed, but Semitic
words never add ending to ending to the formation of long
and intricate compounds, as in Aryan and Mongolian

The Semitic languages, comprising the Hebrew and
Arabic, the ancient Assyrian, Phoenician, etc., are re-
markable for their rigidity. For centuries they persist
with scarcely a change. This seems, indeed, a necessary
consequence of their character. The root is the most un-
changing of verbal forms, and the root is the visible skel-
eton of every Semitic word. Hardly a single compound
Semitic word exists, while variation of form takes place
with exceeding slowness.

The Semitic type of language thus points to the speech
of primitive man as directly as does the Chinese. It is
root-language to a veiy marked extent, and does not oc-
cupy the high position in linguistic development which is
often ascribed to it. Its superiority to the Chinese consists
in the adoption of a superior expediënt, — that of root-inflec-
tion, which served all linguistic purposes, and checked fur-
ther development by rendering unnecessary the employment
of other expedients, as in the remaining types of speech.


It has consequently retained its archaic method with rigid

The Melanochroic people of Africa possess what is usu-
ally considered a distinct tyTpe of language, known as the
Hamitic, and spoken by the ancient Egyptians, the modern
Copts, and by the Berbers of the Sahara region from Egypt
to the Atlantic. These languages are related to the Semitic
family. Many of their roots are similar to Semitic roots, and
in grammatical structure there are marked traces of Semitic
affinity. Yet there are characteristics differing from the
Semitic. It may be that the two types of speech were de-
rived from a single source and have developed somewhat
differently. The Egyptian language is monosyllabic, and
its forms are almost as rigid and archaic in structure as
those of the Chinese. This monosyllabilism has been
traced by some writers to a Nigritian source. The mono-
syllabic character pertains to several of the Negro lan-
guages ; and the fact that their vocabularies differ from
the Egyptian proves nothing, since savage vocabularies
often change with great rapidity.

This suggestion is in accordance with the idea advanced
in regard to the origin of the Melanochroic race. In fact,
our consideration of the languages of mankind leads to
some interesting conclusions. The two primitive races,
the Mongolian and the Negro, probably- both used origin-
ally a root-method of speech. Each of them, according to
our view of the case, developed into a very- ancient civiliza-
tion, — the Chinese and the Egyptian. These civilizations
came into existence ere language had advanced far beyond
its archaic root-condition ; and in the adaptation of this
imperfect method of speech to the needs of man in his
earliest civilized stage, roots continued the main constit-


uent of language, and were variously dealt with to express
the multitude of new ideas that arose. The root-language
from which came that of Egypt may have, in another re-
gion, developed the highly effective system of root-inflec-
tion of Semitic speech. Alike in the Semitic and the
Hamitic linguistic types, the use of suffixes and affixes
prevails to a limited extent; and in this respect they are
in harmony with the Nigritian languages, —their possible
ancestral stock, — in which the agglutinative principle has
attained some slight development. But the separation of
these several types must have taken place at a very remote
date, while language was yet but little developed beyond
its archaic stage.

In the Mongolian languages root-inflection failed to ap-
pear, and the principle of word-compounding took its place
as the ordinary expedient. We have traced this line of
development of language through its arrested stage in
Chinese, and its unfoldment in American and Mongolian
speech, to its culmination in Aryan,— a linguistic type which
seems to be in direct continuity with the Mongolian agglu-
tinative method. This consideration leads to the same
conclusion which we reached in studying the races of man-
kind. We seem to perceive two original races, the Mongo-
lian and the Negroid, each with its archaic type of speech,
closely resembling each other originally, but pursuing differ-
ent lines of development, the former reaching its final stage
in the speech of Xanthochroic man,— the highest outcome of
the Mongolian race ; the latter in the speech of the Semites,
— the highest outcome of the Negroid race. It remains, in
conclusion of this chapter, to consider the development of
the Aryan type of speech, — the most effective instrument
of intellectual expression yet attained by man.


In the Aryan languages alone has verbal analysis be-
come a prominent characteristic. In the Semitic tongues
there is no analysis, and almost no synthesis. The same
may be said of the Chinese and its cognate dialects. In
the other languages of Asia, and those of Europe and Amer-
ica, synthesis is a prevailing characteristic, it reaching its
culmination in the interminable American compounds. It
is less declared in the Mongolian tongues, but in none of
them does word-analysis appear. This is only found as an
active principle in the Aryan of all the families of speech.
In the Aryan languages it has always been a ruling char-
acteristic, though it is not strongly declared in the most
archaic of these dialects. No tendency to preserve the
integrity of form in words exists, and abrasion has gone
steadily on, reducing the length of verbal elements, and
wearing down or breaking up compound words into mono-
syllables, until some Aryan tongues have gained a moiio-
syllabilism approaching that of the Chinese. It is this
analytic tendency which has produced and constitutes the
Aryan method of inflection, and in which it is strongly con-
trasted with the vowel-inflection of Semitic speech.

From its origin, the Aryan type of speech has manifested
the double power to build up and to break down, and these
powers have been continually in exercise. It is an inter-
esting fact, however, that the building-up or word-com-
bining tendenc}7 long continued the more active, and yielded
such highly complex inflectional languages as the Sanscrit
and the Greek. The variation from the Mongolian method •
was not yet decided, and the synthetic principle continued
in the ascendency. But throughout the succeeding period,
down to the present time, the abrading or anatytic tendency
has been the more active, and languages of very simple


structure have arisen. This is most strikingly the case in
English speech, but it is also strongly declared in the Latin
derivative languages, in modern Persian and Hindu, and to
some extent in modern Greek and German. It appears
to have met with most resistance in Slavonic speech, in
which the synthetic tendency has vigorously retained its

In all the ancient Aryan tongues the use of word-com-
bination for grammatical expression was vitally active.
Highly complex languages arose, which are often spoken
of with an admiration as if they had attained the perfection
of linguistic structure, and as if modern languages were
barbarous in comparison. And yët they are superior to
agglutinative speech only in the fact that they permit
verbal variation. They are cumbersome and unwieldy to
modern tongues, which have become fitted to the use of a
simpler and swifter speech.

No sooner did the vigor of word-combination grow inac-
tive, checked probably by the complexity it had evolved,
than the analytic tendency became prominent, and began
to break down the cumbrous compound words into their
elements. The pronoun was separated from the verb.
Particles were torn off and used separately. Auxiliaries
came into more frequent use. Analysis rose into active
competition with synthesis. Yet this did not proceed
rapidly in the ancient historic period. That was an age of
literary cultivation, in which language became controlled
by standards of authority, and its variation was greatly
checked. The most active analytic change was that dis-
played by the Latin, the speech of a highly practical people,
who were more attracted to ease and convenience of utter-
ance than to philosophic perfection of grammatical method.


As the synthetic principle had originated during the
primal period of Aryan barbarism, and reached its highest
development during the ancient era of literary cultivation,
so a second period of barbarism seemed essential to any
rapid action of the analytic principle. This period came.
The ancient civilizations vanished, and a long-continued era
of mental gloom overspread the Aryan world. Through-
out this Middle-Age period the restraining influence of
literature ceased to act. Nearly all the literary cultivation
that remained was restricted to the classical Latin and
Greek in the West, and Sanscrit in the East. Every check
to dialectical change was removed, and language varied
with the utmost activity.

This variation, in Europe, was greatly aided by the for-
cible mingling of peoples speaking unlike dialects. In
France, Italy, and Spain the Latin became exposed to the
influence of barbarian invaders accustomed to a different
speech. The complex words, with their intricate signifi-
cance, proved a burden to these new speakers; they
became broken up into their elements.1 AYlien, at a later
period, the minds of men became again cultivated, and
thought regained some of its vanished powers, the analytic
tendency held its own ; the old synthetic process had lost
its force. Auxiliaries and words of relation came more and

1 Philologists believe that a barbarous Latin, analogous to the jargons
known as Pigeon English and Lingua Franca, became the medium of
communication between the conquerors and their subjects, the gram-
matical perfection of the classic Latin disappearing, and being replaced
by a linguistic method of great simplicity. Similar conditions may have
attended the mingling of dissimilar languages in England, Persia, and
elsewhere; yet such an influence could hut have accelerated what seems
the natural tendency of the Aryan type of language toward analytic
methods of speech, since this has shown itself in places and periods in
which no such specially favoring influence existed.


more into use. Complex ideas, instead of being condensed
into single words, as of old, were expressed by groups of
words, each of which constituted a separate element of the
idea. A distinct and highly valuable step forward in the
evolution of language had been gained. As in ancient writ-
ing the characters at first expressed ideas, then words and
syllables, and finally alphabetic sounds, so thought became
divided into its prime elements, and instead of spoken
words expressing complete ideas, as in American speech,
or sectional parts of ideas, as in agglutinative and early in-
flectional speech, they became reduced into the component
elements of ideas. A sort of chemical analysis of thought
had taken place. Thought had, if we may so express it,
been reduced to its alphabetic form.

Genealogy / Re: Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:29:41 PM »

Aryan political evolution has everywhere followed the
same general direction; but its rapidity has been greatly
affected by the conditions of society. Under the civic
institutions of Greece and Rome, democracy, territorial
division of the people, and private ownership of land
early appeared; while with the agricultural but warlike
Teutons and Celts progress in this direction has been
much slower; and among the agricultural, but peaceful
and sluggish, Hindus and Slavs, the ancient conditions
still in great part prevail. Yet in every case the general
course of evolution has been the same, and but one final
outcome can be expected to appear, — that of complete
democracy. In the patriarchal empires of Asia, on the
contrary, political evolution followed an exactly oppo-
site course, and long ago reached its inevitable ultimate
in complete absolutism. Political progress in these em-
pires has long since ceased, and can only be resumed
under the influence of Aryan ideas and a reversal of the
governmental principle which has so long held supreme

ANGUAGE formed the clew through whose aid

modern research traversed the Aryan labyrinth,—
that mysterious time-veiled region in which so many won-
ders lay concealed. It cannot, indeed, be doubted that
even without the aid of language this hidden problem of
the past would have been in part solved. We have already
shown that the Aryans have much in common besides their
speech. Their industrial relations, their political systems,
their religious organization, their mythologies, their family
conditions, form so many separate guides leading to the
discovery of that remarkable ancient community. Nor is
this all. As we shall show farther on, the modern Aryans
have still other links of affinity, less direct, it is true, than
those so far traced, yet adding to the strength of the de-
monstration, and enabling us still better to comprehend the
conditions of that ancient and re-discovered community.

Yet, with all this, the fact remains that language offered
the simplest and safest path into the hidden region, and
that by comparison of words we have found out much con-
cerning the modes of life in old Arya that otherwise must
have remained forever unknown. This being the case, it
becomes a part of our task to consider the character of
the method of speech which lias proved of such remark-
able utility in the recovery of a valuable chapter of ancient


history. It is known to differ in important particulars
from all other types of human language, not so much in
its words, — for there many accidental coincidences with
other languages exist, — but in its structure, in that basic
organism of thought which is clothed upon with speech as
with a garment. Yet in order properly to understand these
structural characteristics, it will be necessary briefly to re-
view the several types of speech in use by the higher ranks
of mankind. A comparison of these types will reveal, as
all philologists admit, that the Aryan is the most highly
developed method of speech, and the most flexible and
capable of all the instruments of thought }Tet devised by
mankind. In this respect, as in all the others noted, the
Aryan in its original organization was superior to the other
human races.

The types of speech in use by the barbarian and civil-
ized peoples and nations are divided by philologists into
four general classes, — the Isolating, the Agglutinative, the
Incorporating, and the Inflectional; the last being sepa-
rated into two sub-classes, the Semitic and the Aiyan,
which properly should be considered as distinct classes. Of
these methods the isolating is usually viewed as the least
progressed beyond what must have been the original mode
of speech. It is the one in use by the most persistent of
human civilizations, — the Chinese. In the language of
China we seem to hear the voice of archaic man still speak-
ing to us down the long vista of time. It is primitive, as
everything in China is primitive. Yet through the aid of
a series of expedients it has been adapted to the needs of
a people of active literary tendencies.

Philologists are generally satisfied that man first spoke
in monosyllables, each of which conveyed some generalized


information. The sentence had not yet been devised, nor
even the phrase ; and language consisted of isolated excla-
mations, or root-words, each of which told its own story,
while no endeavor was made to analyze the information
conveyed into its component elements.

Yet this idea directly affiliates the language of primi-
tive man with that of the lower animals. For the lower
animals possess a language of root-sounds, each of which
yields a vague and generalized information, or is indicative
of some emotion. Ordinarily this language consists of very
few sounds, though in certain cases it is more extended,
and is capable of conveying some diversity of information.
This is particularly the case with some of the birds. And
it is usually a language of vowels, though an approach to
consonantal sounds is frequently manifested.

Early man, according to the conclusions of philological
science, possessed a language of the kind here described,
consisting of a few calls and cries, each conveying some
general information or indicating some emotion. As man’s
needs increased, the number of these vocal utterances in-
creased correspondingly, with a growing variety of conso-
nantal sounds. In time, it is probable that a considerable
vocabulary thus came into existence, though language still
continued but little developed beyond the root-stage of

No human tribe is now iii this archaic stage of language ;
even the lowest savages have progressed beyond it. Yet
that it once everywhere existed, is believed to be fully
proved by the analysis of existing languages, in each of
which a vocabulary of roots emerges as the foundation
of all subsequent development. And that this method of
speech continued until a somewhat late period in human


history seems indicated by one significant fact; this is,
that the two most ancient of civilizations—the Chinese and
the Egyptian — still possess languages which are but a
step beyond the root-stage. The indications are that these
peoples rapidly developed from barbarism into civilization
at an era when human speech was yet mainly in its archaic
stage, and were forced at once to adapt this imperfect
instrument to the demands of civilized life, without being
able to wait for its natural evolution.

The language of China is strictly monosyllabic, and its
words have the generalized force of roots. Yet these vague
words have been adapted to the expression of definite
ideas in a very interesting manner, which we may briefly
consider. The natural development of language consists
in expedients for the limitation of the meaning of words,
vague conceptions being succeeded by precise and localized
ones. This is ordinarily accomplished by the formation of
compound words, in which each element limits the mean-
ing of the others. Such an expedient has been adopted
in every language except the Chinese and its related dia-
lects. TThy it was not adopted by them, is an interesting
question, of which a possible solution may be offered.

The study of Chinese indicates that its original vocabu-
lary was a very limited one. The language seems to pos-
sess but about five hundred original words. But each of
these has several distinct meanings. The ancestors of the
Chinese people would appear to have made each of their
root-words perform a wide range of duties, instead of de-
vising new words for new thoughts. To advance beyond
this primitive stage either an extension of the vocabulary
or some less simple expedient was necessary. The Chinese
adopted a peculiar method for this purpose, the character


of which can be best shown by an illustration. We may
instance the word fao, which has the several meanings, “to
reach,” “to cover,” “to ravish,” “to lead,” “banner,”
“corn,” “way,” etc. These are modernized meanings.
Originally the significance of words was much more vague.
At present, however, the word tao, if used alone, has the
meanings above given ; and some method is requisite to
show what particular one of them is intended. The diffi-
culty thence arising is partly overcome by the device of
tones, of which eight are occasionally, and four are com-
monly used. The tone in which a word is spoken —
whether the rising, the falling, the even, or some other
inflection — indicates its particular meaning; and in this
way the five hundred original words are increased to over
fifteen hundred.

A more important device is that of combination. Two
words having some similarity or analogy in one of their
meanings are joined, and a special meaning is thus indi-
cated. Thus tli e word tao, above given, has “way” for
one of its meanings. Lu, out of its eight or ten meanings,
has also one signifying “way” or “path;” therefore
tao-lu means “way” or “road” only. So ting, having
“ to hear ” for one of its several meanings, is confined to
this meaning by the addition of keen, “to see” or “ per-
ceive.” General meanings are also gained by the same
method. Thus fa, “ father,” combined with mu, “ mother,”
yields fa-mu, “ parents.” Idling, “ light,” with sung,
“heavy,” yields khing-sung, “weight.” Gender and
some other grammatical expedients may be indicated by
the same device.

By a consideration of the above facts we can understand
why grammatical inflection was never adopted in the



Chinese. Inflection has its origin in worcl-compouncling.
But the fathers of the Chinese people seem to have ex-
hausted the powers of word-compounding as a method of
increasing their vocabulary. Instead of coining new words
to express new things, they seem to have spread their old
words over new things, and then limited their meaning by
compounding. This gave rise to two important results.
It was necessary to retain the integrity of form and mean-
ing of the old monosyllables, since each of them formed a
definite part of so many compound words; and it became
impossible to express all the intricacy of grammatical rela-
tions by word-compounding, since this would have led to
inextricable confusion. In consequence, the expedient of
the syntactical arrangement of words to. express gram-
matical variations was adopted, and the peculiar Chinese
method of speech came into existence.

A Chinese word standing alone has no grammatical
limitation. It may be noun, verb, adjective, or adverb at
pleasure. Its sense is as indefinite as that of the English
word “ love,” which may be used at will as verb, noun, or
adjective. This generalism of sense, found in some Eng-
lish words, is common in Chinese words. The special
meaning which each word is intended to convey depends
upon its position in the sentence. Every change in its
relation to the other words of the sentence gives it a new”
sense or grammatical meaning. Chinese grammar, there-
fore, is all syntax. There is no rhetorical freedom in the
arrangement of words into sentences. They must be
placed according to fixed rules, since any variation in their
position gives a new meaning to the sentence. And not
only the parts of speech, but the number, gender, and case
of nouns, and the mood and tense of verbs, are indicated


by the positiou of the words in the sentence, aided by the
use of certain rules of composition and of some defining

The Chinese expedient has been adopted by no other
family of language, though the Egyptian vocabulary is
almost as monosyllabic and primitive in character. Every-
where else the vocabulary seems to have been extended by
coinage of new words, and the principle of word-com-
pounding applied to other uses. The most archaic form
of the other types of language is that known as the Incor-
porating, or Polysynthetic, in use by the American tribes
and the Basques of Spain. This is a highly primitive
method, and was probably at one time widely spread over
Europe and Northern Africa, until replaced by more de-
veloped methods of speech.

In the typical incorporating method there are no words,
there are sentences only. The verb swallows up both
subject and object, with all their modifications. A Basque
speaker cannot say 44 I give.” He must say 44 I give it,”
in the one word. There is a poverty of the imagination
indicated. A hint never suffices ; no lacunoe are left for
the mind of the listener to fill up. Where we say 44 John
killed the snake,” the Basque must say 44 John, the snake,
he killed it; ” and all this is welded together into a single
complex word. This method is carried to a great extreme
in some of the American dialects. The verb absorbs not
only the subject, as in Aryan speech, but all the objects,
direct and indirect, the signs of time, place, manner, and
degree, and all the modifying elements of speech, the whole
being massed into a single utterance.

There is little sense of abstract thought in American
speech. Everything must be expressed to its utmost


details. As an instance we may quote the longest word
in Eliot’s Indian Bible:   icut-ap-pe-sit-tuk-qus-sun-noo-

iceht-unk-quoh. In English we should express this by
“ kneeling down to him.” But in its literal meaning we
have, “ he came to a state of rest upon the bended knees,
doing reverence unto him.” "Whitney quotes, as a remark-
able instance of extension, the Cherokee word ici-ni-tciw-
ti-ge-gi-na-li-skaic-lung-ta-naw-ne-li-ti-se-sti, “ they will by
that time have nearly finished granting (favors) from a
distance to thee and me.”

The inordinate length to which words thus tend to
grow is somewhat reduced by an expedient of contrac-
tion. In forming the compound word the whole of the
particle is not used, but only its significant portion. Thus
the Algonkin word-sentence nadholineen, u bring us the
canoe,” is made up of vaten, “to bring;” amochol,
“canoe;” 2, a euphonic letter; and neen, “to us.”

Savage tribes generally display an inability to think
abstractly or to form abstract words, their languages in
this respect agreeing with the American. A Society
Islander, for instance, can say “dog’s tail,” “sheep’s
tail,” etc., but he cannot say “ tail.” He cannot abstract
the idea from its 'immediate relations. A Malay has no
separate word for “striking,” yet he has no less than
twenty words to express striking with various objects,
as with thin or thick wood, with the palm, the fist, a
club, a sharp edge, etc. This incapacity to express ab-
stract relations is strongly indicated in the American
languages, and indicates that they diverged into their
special t}Tpe at a very low level of human speech. The
Cherokee, for instance, can use thirteen different verbs for
various kinds of washing, but he has no word for the


simple idea of washing. He can say kutuico, “1 wash
myself; ” tcikungkala, “ I wash my clothes ; ” takuteja, “ I
wash dishes ; ” blit is quite unable to say “ I wash.”

All this indicates a very primitive stage of language, in
which every expression had its immediate and local appli-
cation, and each utterance told its whole story. There
was do division of thought into separate parts. In the
advance of thought men got from the idea “ dog” to that
of “dog’s tail,” and from that to “dog’s tail wags.”
They could not think of an action by itself, but could think
of some object in action. No doubt all language pursued
this course of development up to a certain level. Beyond
that point some families of speech began a process of
abstraction, gradually dividing thought into its constituent
elements. The American type failed to do so, but con-
tinued to add modifying elements to its verbal ideas as
the powers of thought widened, until language became a
series of complex polysyllables. This is the theory ad-
vanced by Sayce. All has continued in the original syn-
thetic plan. The secondary method of analysis has not
yet acted upon American thought.

Yet it is rather the method of language than of thought
that has remained persistent with the Americans. They
are undoubtedly able to think more analytically than they
speak. The force of their linguistic S3Tstem has held them
to a method of speech which their minds have grown be-
yond. Every tendency of their language to break up into
its elements has been checked by an incorporative com-
pounding, of which traces are yet visible. In two Amer-
ican languages, the Eskimo and the Aztec, the lowest
and one of the highest in civilized development, isolation
of word-elements has taken place. In these languages a


sentence may consist of several words, instead of being
compressed into a single word. A process of abstraction
exists in the Aztec. Thus the word ome, “two,” com-
bined with yolli, “heart,” yields the abstract verb ome-
yolloa, “ to doubt.” Through methods such as this the
powers of the American type have become increased; yet
in character it directly preserves a highly primitive con-
dition of human speech.

The third type of language which we need to consider
is that known as the Agglutinative. It is the method used
by the Mongolian peoples of Europe and Asia, with the
exception of the Chinese and Indo-Chinese, by the Dravid-
ians of India, and, in a modified form, by the Malayans
of the Pacific islands.

Agglutination means simply word-compounding for
grammatical purposes, without inflectional change of form.
In this linguistic method, as in the isolating, the sep-
arate words retain their forms intact, but many of them
have lost their independence of meaning and become
simply modifying particles. To the root-words the others
are added as suffixes, with a grammatical significance.
The syntax of the Chinese system is here replaced by gram-
mar, the principle of word-compounding having gained a
new purpose or significance. In some of these languages
each verbal root may be made to express an extraor-
dinary variety of shades of meaning by the aid of suffixes.
In the Turkish each root yields about fifty derived forms.
Thus if we take the root sev, which has the general mean-
ing of “ loving,” we may obtain such compounds as sev-
mek, “ to love ; ” sev-me-mek, “ not to love ; ” sev-dir-mek,
“ to cause to love ; ” sev-in-mek, “ to love one’s self ; ” and
so on. By a continued addition of suffixes we arrive at