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Mythology / Mythology of All Races series 1916-1932
« on: June 25, 2019, 11:36:09 PM »
These form the base books.

Btw I've noticed from 1750-1850 and then up to World War 1, and after that up to1 930 were the best books on research n whtever subject. Scholars were eager to research, not like nowadays...

The thirteen volumes of this magnificent series were issued under the editorship of Louis H. Gray, J. A. MacCulloch, and G. F. Moore between 1916 and 1932. Some of the treatments have not been surpassed.

Vols. 2, 4-5, 7-8, 13 are edited by J.A. Macculloch and G.F. Moore, and have imprint: Boston, Archaeological Institute of America, Marshall Jones Company

Bibliography at end of each volume

I. Greek and Roman, by W.S. Fox. 1916.--
II. Eddic, by J.A. Macculloch. 1930.--
III. Celtic, by J.A. Macculloch; Slavic by Jan Ma?chal. 1918.--
IV. Finno-Ugric, Siberian, by Uno Holmberg. 1927.--
V. Semitic, by S.H. Langdon. 1931.--
VI. Indian, by A.B. Keith; Iranian, by A.J. Carnvy. 1917.--
VII. Armenian, by M.H. Ananikian; African, by Alice Werner. 1925.--
VIII. Chinese, by J.C. Ferguson; Japanese, by Masaharu Anesaki. 1928.--
IX. Oceanic, by R.B. Dixon. 1916.--
X. North American, by H.B. Alexander. 1916.--
XI. Latin-American, by H.B. Alexander. 1920.--
XII. Egyptian, by W.M. Mu?ller; Indo-Chinese, by J.G. Scott. 1918.--
XIII. Complete index to volumes I-XII. 1932

Siberian mythology / UNO HOLMBERG 1882-1949
« on: June 25, 2019, 11:23:44 PM »
From Wikipedia:

Uno Harva
Uno Nils Oskar Harva was a Finnish religious scholar, who founded the discipline in Finland together with Rafael Karsten. A major figure in North Eurasian ethnology and study of religion, Harva is best known for his body of work on Finno-Ugric and Altaic religions. He is considered to be one of the foremost 20th-century European interpreters of shamanism... Read More

Born   August 30, 1882
Died   August 13, 1949 (aged 66)
Nationality   Finnish
Other names   Uno Holmberg
Occupation   Theology, Sociology

Siberian mythology / Siberian
« on: June 25, 2019, 03:41:59 PM »





MOST dominant among the Siberian peoples is the great
Altaic race, the original dwelling-place of which ap-
pears to have been in the vicinity of the Altai Mountains, but
which at the present time is distributed over an enormous
stretch of territory in Central and North Asia, the Near East
and Eastern Europe. The languages spoken by these scattered
peoples are divided into three large groups: Turco-Tatar,
Mongolian, and Mandshu-Tungus.

Besides the Turks proper, or Osmans, the closely related
Turkomans to the east of the Caspian Sea and in the Stavropol
Government, and the Eastern Turkish tribes in East Turkes-
tan, the Turco-Tatar group comprises further, the Tatars
around the Volga, whence pioneers have migrated as far as
to Western Siberia, the Tatars in the Crimea and other dis-
tricts in Russia, the Bashkirs in the central Ural districts, the
Nogaiyes in the Crimea and Northern Caucasia and other Tatar
tribes up to south of the Caspian Sea, the Kirghis in Russia
and Turkestan, the Altai Tatars in the neighbourhood of the
Altai, where they form a number of smaller groups with dif-
ferent dialects, — Soyots, Karagass, the Abakan, Cholym, and
Baraba Tatars, — the Teleuts, the Lebed Tatars and the Ku-
mandines, and also the .Yakuts by the River Lena in North
Siberia, and the Chuvash from the bend of the Volga in

The Mongolians, whose original home was by Lake Baikal,
and from whom Mongolia derives its name, have assimilated
different Turkish tribes, which have appropriated the Mongo-
lian language. In the course of raids of conquest the Mon-
golians have also overflowed to other districts, amongst others,


to Afghanistan, where they are now termed Moghols. Closely
related to the Mongolians are the Kalmucks to the south of
the Altai, in the southern stretches of the Tientshan Mountains
and by the Volga in Russia, whither inner disturbances caused
them to wander in the seventeenth century. Further, the
Buriats around the Caspian Sea belong to the Mongolian group.

The Mandshu-Tungus stocks, which are composed of many
closely related lesser groups with different languages, appear
to have migrated from the districts around the Amur River.
At the present time tribes belonging to these stocks dwell over
wide stretches in North-East Siberia, reaching from the Yenisei
Valley to the Pacific Ocean, and from Northern China and
Lake Baikal to the Arctic Ocean. The Tungus stocks dwelling
in the Amur Valley include the Goldes, the Orotchones, the
Manegres, etc., and also the more distantly related Solones,
Mandshus and Dahurs, of which the last-named have for the
most part appropriated the Mongolian language. The Tungus
dwelling on the shores of the Northern Arctic Ocean and the
Pacific are called Lamutes. The Dolgans dwelling around the
Khatanga River, and at present wholly under the influence of
the Yakut language and culture, appear also to have been
originally Tungus.

The primary cause of the present widely scattered state of
the Altaic race would seem to be found in their restless, migra-
tory mode of life, and their lust for war. Tribes belonging to
this race first appeared in Europe with the great migration of
the Huns, whose barbaric advance-guards are described al-
ready by Ptolemaios in the second century. When these re-
turned to Asia after their martial exploits, certain Turkish
tribes remained behind, the remains of which are the Bolgars,
or, to call them by their present name, the Chuvashes by the
Volga. Early in history, Turkish peoples in Asia have built
up powerful empires, attaining a certain, though short-lived,
prosperity. Their chiefs have ruled everywhere in Asia.
An important centre of development seems to have existed

at some period south of Lake Baikal on the Selenga River and
its tributary, the Orkhon, where a number of ancient Turkish
inscriptions on the gravestones of departed chiefs have been
discovered. These inscriptions, translated in 1893 by Prof.
Vilhelm Thomsen, originate from the Turk dynasty (Chinese,
Tu-kiu, 680-745' A.D.) and the subsequent period of pros-
perity among the Uigurs (745-840). The Uigurs came at
that time into contact with missionaries from Syria, who
preached the Nestorian and Manichean doctrines, and also
with Buddhist missionaries from China. When, later, a part
of the Uigurs moved to the districts around the Tientshan,
where they took up agriculture and commerce, an important
centre of culture arose in East Turkestan (900-1200 a.d.).
Through the Uigurs other Mongolian tribes came into con-
tact with the Christian Faith. The influence of Syrian culture
is evident in the Syrian characters of Uigurean literature, re-
mains of which were dug up in excavations commenced in 1905
at the town of Turfan in East Turkestan. During the period
of Manicheanism, and probably during a still earlier period,
ancient Persian culture affected the religious views of the Mon-
golians and the Turco-Tatars dwelling at Sajan and the Altai,
as will be seen from certain mythological names Mon-
golian Hormusda, Kalmuck Hormustan — Persian Ahura-
Mazdaj Buriat Arima = Persian Ahriman; Altai-Tatar and
Kirghis Kudai (“ God ”) = Persian Hudaij Altai-Tatar Aina
(“ an evil spirit dwelling under the earth ”) = Persian

Great upheavals and new groupings of tribes took place
when the great Mongolian ruler Temudjin, or as he is more
often called, Jenghiz Khan or Chingiskan (1162-1227), ac-
complished his ambitious schemes of conquest. These migra-
tions of tribes pressed also the Turks farther west, gradually
even to Europe. After the Mongolian conquest, different
Tatar tribes remained behind in Russia, represented by the
Tatars at present dwelling there. Jenghiz Khan himself was

extremely liberal in religious matters, tolerating all the dif-
ferent religious sects. His successors, notably Kubilai (1260-
1294), whose capital became Pekin, were, however, more in-
clined towards Buddhism, which seems also to have exercised
a great influence over the Mongolians. But with the fall of
the Mongol dynasty in China in 1368, Buddhism appears to
have gone out of fashion, and paganism blossomed anew, until
Buddhism again, in the shape of Lamaism, won over in the
seventeenth century fervent disciples among both Mongolians
and Kalmucks, the last-named setting up during their war in
Thibet the Dalai Lama as their spiritual leader. Eager mis-
sionaries arose also in the ranks of the people, and gradually,
by fines and other punishments, the pagan sacrifices were over-
come. For political reasons, however, many old folk-customs
were tolerated by giving them a new meaning. At the present
day, the orthodox people abhor their old shamanistic religion,
the “ Black Religion,” which has almost entirely been sup-
planted by Lamaism, the “Yellow Religion,” with Thibetan
books of devotion. Since the beginning of the nineteenth
century, the Buriats south and east of the Baikal, and a part of
the Tungus dwelling there, have also been led to accept the
“Yellow Religion.” The older Buddhistic culture, which
penetrated from China, has left among the Central Asian
tribes a number of myths, in which the Buddhist names of the
gods appear borrowed from the Sanscrit and not from the

Of the tribes belonging to the Turco-Tatar group, the ma-
jority, have gradually declared for Islam, which had already
in the eighth century penetrated to a Turkish tribe, forcing its
way via Turan into the Near East. Only the Soyotes in Mon-
golia and the Uigurs, the latter lapsing little by. little into
Chinamen, are Buddhists 5 the Yakuts, part of the Tungus in
Trans-Baikal and the Chuvashes, being, like many of the
Tatars in the Minusinsk District and on the Volga, members of
the Russian Orthodox Church,
 -t—   ?   -.....

An Old Turkish Image and Memorial
Stone with Inscription in North

(See page 301.)

After photograph by-S. P&lsi.


Traces of the religion conformed to at one time by the whole
of the Altaic race, shamanism, have adhered to many of the
converted tribes, such as the Yakuts, Buriats, part of the
Kirghis, etc. In its primitive state, this religion still flourishes
among the Tungus and the tribes related to them among the
more Northern Yakuts, among the Buriats west of the Baikal,
and among a few small Tatar tribes at the Altai.

An important field of investigation is moreover found
among all the peoples who, in different ways, have been in close
contact with the Altaic race. The peoples, related to the Finns,
on the River Ob, the Ostiaks and Voguls, have been at least
in their southern districts influenced by the Tatars. The
Tungus, again, have transmitted many of their beliefs and
customs to the eastern Samoyeds and to some Old Asian tribes,
such as, for example, the nearly extinct Yenisei Ostiaks and
the Yukagires. Asiatic shamanism exists still among the
Chukchee, Koriaks and the Kamchadales. The Kamchadales
have, however, to a great part become Russianised in recent
times. Among the Tungus tribes by the Amur River, and
equally among the East Mongolians, Chinese culture also has
in some degree left traces.

Concerning the means of existence of the Altaic races, with
which the religious beliefs stand in connection, the tribe most
completely adhering to its primitive mode of life is the Tungus.
They exist in the great primeval forests by hunting, or wander
about with reindeer, riding on the backs of these j on the banks
of rivers and on the sea-coasts, fishing is also an important
means of existence On the same plane of civilization are also
the other North Siberian peoples. The tribes dwelling on the
great steppes of Central Asia have from prehistoric times been
nomads 5 part of the Soyots near the Altai are reindeer-nomads.
For the majority the horse and the sheep are the domestic
animals of most importance. In some districts, chiefly in the
south, agriculture has recently been taken up.

The oldest information concerning the Mongolian and


Tatar religions, is found in accounts of travels by. certain Euro-
peans, sent out in the thirteenth century to Central Asia. One
of these was the Franciscan monk, Johannes de Plano Carpini,
sent by Pope Innocent IV to the land of the Mongolians. He
journeyed over the Volga as far as to Karakorum on the
Orkhon, the capital founded by Ögedei, the son of Jenghiz
Khan, in which town he remained over one winter. His
experiences he describes in his Historia Mongolorwn. An-
other important book of travel of the same period was written
by the Franciscan Vilhelm Rubruquis (Ruysbroeck), who
travelled in 1253-12$$ as the ambassador of the French King,
Louis IX, in nearly the same districts as did Carpini. Of
the accounts mentioned above, a critical edition appeared in
Recueil de voyages et de mémoires fubliê far la sociêtê de
Géo graf hiey tome IV, Paris, 1839. The well-known travel-
ler, Marco Polo, sojourned also for a longer period among
the Mongolians, going out in 1271 as the Pope’s ambassador to
visit Kubilai-Khan; serving the latter at one time in the capacity
of governor, until in 1292 he was accorded permission to return
to his native country. His De regiombus orientalibusy touch-
ing in some degree also on the religion of the Mongolians,
has been translated into many languages. A few older frag-
ments of knowledge concerning Mongolian religious beliefs are
to be found in certain Chinese, Mohammedan, and Mongolian
sources, amongst others, in the Mongolian Chronicle of
Ssanang Ssetsen, translated into German by the Academician
I. J. Schmidt {Geschichte der Ost-Mongolen und ihres Fur-

The oldest reports are, however, so few and insignificant,
that it is not possible to build up any clear representation of the
ancient religion of the Altaic race by their aid alone. But as
the majority of the scattered peoples have retained the old
traditions handed down by their ancestors nearly to the present
day, even in many cases right on to our time, it has still been
possible to gather together an imposing mass of material for

iff. '

investigation. The foundation of these, at present compara-
I   tively large, collections, was already laid in the seventeenth

I   century, and later, after the Russian migration to Siberia.

Among some of the tribes, notably the Buriats and Yakuts,
native investigators have played an important part in this work.
Some of the northern tribes, in particular the Tungus living in
their inaccessible primeval forests, are, however, up to the
%   present day, still very little known.


i. -   •'





HE VARIOUS streams of civilization, coming at dif-

ferent times and from different sources, which have
crossed and recrossed Central Asia, have brought with them
differing conceptions of the world we live in and the universe.
The newest arrivals, usurping as they: do the supreme authority,
have either altogether brushed aside the old beliefs, or, finding
in them some point of contact, have assimilated them. Matters
being thus, it is often extremely difficult to decide which fea-
tures represent older views, and what the original world pic-
ture of the Altaic race was like.

To obtain some idea of how primitive peoples form their
idea of the world, we will examine the strange, but to them
quite natural, conception of the world of the Yenisei Ostiaks.
According to their ideas, the world is divided into three parts:
Above, the sky; in the middle, the earth peopled by men;
below, the kingdom of the dead; but all these parts are united
by the u Holy Water,” which, beginning in Heaven, flows
across the earth to Hades. This water is the great Yenisei
River.1 The Samoyeds also, who have learned to speak of
different storeys in the sky, declare the Yenisei River to flow
from the lake in the sixth storey of Heaven. In their tales,
the Yenisei Ostiaks describe how the shaman rows his boat in
Heaven and how he returns along the river at such terrific
speed that the wind whistles through him.2 It may, be diffi-
cult for us to understand these pictures, but to the Yenisei

Ostiak nothing can be more natural. Do they not know from
experience that the earth is slanting, that the rushing river
which is the dwelling-place of this fisher tribe comes from
“ above ” and flows “ down ” into the depths of Hades? The
south, like many other North Siberian peoples, they call u that
above,” the north “ that below.” The Yenisei is to them
the centre of the world, as on its banks or tributaries they place
all the peoples known to them, and thus would they draw a
map of the world, had they a Ptolemy amongst them.

The peoples living in Central Asia imagine the world some-
times as a circular disc, sometimes as a square. In an Altaic
tale in which a Lama creates the earth with his staff, the world
is said to have been originally circular but later to have altered,
so that it is now square.8 Thus do the Yakuts also imagine
the world. In their folk-poetry the four corners of both
Heaven and Earth are often mentioned. The winds, for ex-
ample, are said to arise in the four corners of the sky.4 Georgi
relates how the Tungus made a picture of the earth which
was in the form of a little square of iron plate.5 This idea,
common to many peoples, is closely connected with the four
cardinal points. Even in the world pictures of the civilized
peoples of Southern Asia it is quite general. In a certain Yakut
tale, which speaks of the octagonal earth, the points of the
compass have been doubled.6

Side by side with this idea of a square world, the idea
of a circular one is equally common. It is often pictured
as round, and as such it appears also to the eye. Similarly
shaped is the sky stretching over the earth. In the hero
tales of the Yakuts the outer edge of the earth is said to
touch the rim of a hemispherical sky. A certain hero rode
out once to the place where earth and sky touched. Simi-
larly, in some districts, the Buriats conceive the sky to be
shaped like a great overturned cauldron, rising and falling in
constant motion. In rising, an opening forms between the
sky and the edge of the earth. A hero, who happened at such

Boat-Gods and Boats of the Yenisei

(See page 308.)

After photograph by U. Holmberg.


a time to place his arrow between the edge of the earth and
the rim of the sky was enabled thus to penetrate outside the

Between Heaven and Hades, the earth peopled by men
forms the centre of the universe. Often the earth is called
“ The Middle Place.” Sometimes this “ Middle Place ” is,
in a more confined sense, the country of the people using the
term. Mongolia, among other regions, is a world-centre of
this description. The Chinese also call their country “ the
Central Empire,” Examples of this belief, born in. the begin-
ning from the anthropocentric view of the world peculiar to
man, are to be found also among the ancient civilized peoples.

From the fact that Mongolia is a plateau in which number-
less rivers flowing in different directions have their sources,
the Mongols derive their belief that they live on the peak of a
world, imagined to be like a great mound, other peoples liv-
ing on its sides below them.

In addition to the simplified idea that the world is three-
storeyed : Heaven, Earth and Hades, Altaic folk-poetry
speaks often of a many-storeyed world. Especially is the
sky believed to contain hemispheres, one higher than another 5
generally three, seven, or nine are spoken of, but sometimes
even more. Most common is the conception of a seven-
storeyed Heaven, obviously derived from the Babylonian pic-
ture of Heaven, in which the sun and the moon and five planets
are situated in hemispheres placed one over the other. As
the complement to these seven heavens, an equal number of
storeys are pictured down below. Where the sky is regarded
as nine-storeyed, Hades is also divided into nine gradually de-
scending parts. That a belief of this description has actually
sprung from a belief in layers of stars, appears from an Altai
Tatar tale, in which the sun and moon are placed in different
storeys of the sky. The Moon old man lives in the sixth and
the Sun mother in the seventh Heaven.8 The primitive
peoples of Siberia do not, however, know the reasons for this

division, neither can they explain the significance of any
Heaven. The most northern peoples place in the different
storeys of Heaven, landscapes from the earth — mountains,
lakes, tundras, snowfields, etc. The Samoyeds relate in their
shaman tales that there is a lake in the first storey of Heaven,
a fiat plain in the second, the third is covered with numerous
heights like little volcanoes, the fourth is formed like a roof
of little icicles, the sixth contains a great lake, from which
springs the Yenisei. Of the remaining storeys, of which there
are in some districts altogether nine, they have very little
knowledge.9 The Yakuts believe that in the lower regions of
the sky there are also animals, kept by the inhabitant spirits
as food.


Full text of "Aboriginal Siberia : a study in social anthropology"




















When, somewhat light-heartedly, I suggested to Miss CV.ap-
licka, after she had taken the Oxford Diploma in Anthropology,
that she might most fruitfully undertake a monograph on the
aboriginal tribes of Siberia, I confess that I had no clear idea of
the magnitude of the task proposed. The number of Russian
authorities concerned — not to speak of the students of other
nationahties — is simply immense, as Miss Czaplicka's biblio-
graphy clearly shows. Moreover, as must necessarily happen
in such a case, the scientific value of their work differs con-
siderably in degree ; so that a great deal of patient criti-
cism and selection is required on the part of one who is
trying to reduce the evidence to order. Now I am sure that
Miss Czaplicka has proved herself competent to do this sifting
properly. As a result, those students belonging to western
Europe who could make nothing of the Russian originals — and
alas, they compose tlie vast majority — will henceforth be in
a position to fi-ame a just notion of the social anthropology of
these interesting peoples of the Far North. Hitherto, they
have had to depend largely on the recent discoveries made by
the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, or else to go back as far as
the classical researches of such writers as Castren or Pallas.
Of course there remains much to be accomphshed still. In
particular, so far as I can judge, the data in regard to social
organization are altogether incomplete, and should be made


:v first consideration \>y those trained anthropologists who in
the future may be concerned with this region. Needless to say,
antin-upc)k>gical science is quite insatiate ; wherefore, despite the
excellence of most of the material already collected, it is
necessary to insist that a far more intensive study of these
tribes is needed, and that tlie time fur making acquaintance
with their culture in its aboriginal state is fast slipping away.
Indeed, apart from its intrinsic interest, the present survey is of
the utmost value simply as a guide to the future explorer.

Miss Czaplicka's work may be said, I think, to cover the
social anthropology of the aboriginal tribes of Siberia. The
pliysical anthropology, archaeolog}', and technology she does not
profess to touch in the present work. On the other hand, the
main aspects of the social life are dealt with adequately ; and
she has had the happy thought to prefix, in accordance with
modern metiiod, an account of the geographical conditions
to which the native institutions so closely and characteristically

Now it might seem at first sight that such a work as this,
consisting as it primarily does in the systematic presentation of
tlie results of a large number of first-hand authorities, can leave
little scope for originality, except in so far as a critical handling
of sources must always depend in the last resort on the personal
judgement. It seems to me, however, that Miss Czaplicka has
in several inq)ortant respects contributed new ideas of great
interest and importance. In the first place, her classification of
ethnic groups is, so far as I know, her own ; and the fimda-
mental contrast upon which it is based between Palaeo-Siberians,
namely, the ancient inhabitants of the country', and Neo-Siberiaus,
namely, all those peoples who have come northwards at any
time during, let us say, the last milieu ium, but liave already
been resident there long enough to have become differentiated


from ilulr kinsmen in the south, offers a working distinction
of first-rate value. There may he, nay, there undoubtedly is,
a plurality of racial types within each of the groups so dis-
tinguished ; but, from the standpoint of social anthropology, it
seems of primaiy importance to lay stress on the affinities
produced by culture-contact.

In the next place, Miss Czaplicka has dealt with the problem
of the nature of Shamanism in a very novel and, I think,
satisfactory way. Tlie difficulty is that, on the one hand, some
anthropologists have been wont to use the term Shamanism as
a general expression applicable to the magico-religious life of
all primitive peoples, at any rate in so far as the notion of
' possession ' constitutes a dominant note ; while, on the other
hand. Shamanism is sometimes treated as if it stood for a specific
type of religious experience confined to Northern Asia, and ^\^th-
out analogy in any other part of the world. Miss Czaplicka, how-
ever, deftly steers a middle course, doing justice to the peculiarities
of the local type, or (shall we say ?) types, and yet indicating
clearly that a number of elements common to the life and mind
of primitive mankind in general have there met together and
taken on a specific shape. Moreover, Miss Czaplicka has ven-
tured to place her own interpretation on the very curious
phenomena relating to what might be termed the sexual am-
biguity of the Shaman. I am inclined to believe that her theory
of the Shaman's relegation to a third or neutral sex will be
found to throw much light on this veiy curious chapter of
social anthropology. Lastly, Miss Czaplicka, with the help of
what would seem to be somewhat scattered indications derived
from the first-hand authorities, has put together what I take to
be the first systematic account of those remarkable facts of
mental pathology summed up in the convenient term 'Arctic
Hysteria '. This side of her work is all the more important


because, apai-t from tlicse facts, it is difficult or impossible to
api)reciate justly the religious life of these Siberian tribes ; and
to say the religious life of a primitive i)eople is almost to say
their social life as a "svhole.

It remauis only to add that British anthropologists will be
sincerely grateful to Miss Czaplicka for having introduced them
to the splendid work of their colleagues of eastern Europe.
What a love of science must have burned in their hearts to
enable them to prosecute these untiring researches in the teeth
of tlie icy blasts that sweep across tundra and steppe! The
more, too, ishall we have reason to congratulate them, if, as
a result of the scientific study of the aborigines of Siberia,
practical measures are taken to shield them from the demora-
lization which in their case can be but a prelude to extinction.
Unlovely in their ways of life as to us they may appear to be,
these modern representatives of the Age of the Eeindeer typify
mankind's secular struggle to overcome the physical environ-
ment, be it ever so inhospitable and pregnant with death. We
owe it not only to the memory of our remote forefathers, but to
ourselves as moral beings, to do our best to preserve these
toilers of the outer marge whose humble life-history is an
epitome of hmnauity's ceaseless effort to live, and, by making
that effort socially and in common, hkewise to live Avell.


Are there any true aborigines in Siberia, as there are in
Australia anil Africa? This is a question not infrequently
asked in England, and Siberia is sometimes regarded as a
country originally peopled by political exiles and criminals.
Only lately has it been realized that, apart from the interest
and sympathy aroused by the former and the curiosity felt
concerning the latter, Siberia and its people present an in-
teresting variety of subjects for study, and especially for anthro-
pological and archaeological research. In the vast mass of
literature written on the people of this country, there is nothing
which can serve as a comprehensive and concise handbook for
the study of anthropology. The works of early travellers
which deal with the area as a whole give us nothing beyond
general impressions and items of curious information ; while
the profound and systematic study made lately by the Jesup
Expedition is too extensive and detailed for the ordinary student,
and further it deals only with the north-eastern district. The
Memoir of the Jesup Expedition is practically the first work
of the kind published in English — that is if we except transla-
tions of the writings of some of the earlier travellers mentioned
above, such as Ki-asheninnikoff and Pallas.

Many Russian men of science, who have recently published
special works on different districts, take occasion to deplore,
in their prefaces, the lack of such a handbook. It is the object
of the author, before personally investigating conditions in the
country itself, to make an attempt to supply this need ; for
comparative work of this kind is a task for the study rather than
the field.

In the compilation of a work of this kind one realizes only
too well the lack of arrangement and the unequal value of the
available materials. On the one hand, one finds numerous
detailed descriptions of one single characteristic of a people
or of a ceremony ; on the other, a bare allusion to some custom
or a mere cursory account of a whole tribe. Thus the Buryat


scholar, Dordji lianzaroft'/ complains: 'The Orientalists have
long occii[»iecl tiiemselvcs with the inhahitants of the interior
of Asia, hut their attention was primarily directed to the w^ars
of the Mongols, wliile the customs, habits, and beliefs of this
j)eople were neglected as unimportant in historical research.
The faith of the Mongols ])revious to their acceptance of
Buddhism lias received no study at all, the reason being a
serious one, the inadecpiacy of the materials for such research.'

Banzarotf, who has described the Black Faith of the Mongols,
was himself seriously hampered by the vagueness of the Russian
as Avell as the Mongol literature on the subject ^ ; and this in
spite of the fact that the religious side of native life has always
received more attention from writers on Siberia than the social

One of the most earnest pleas for the immediate and syste-
matic study of the Sil)erian aborigines comes from Yadrintzeff,^
who was iunong their ti-uest friends. Lastly, Patkanoff',"* to
whom we owe many statistical and geographical works on
Siberia, and who is the editor of the Central Statistical Com-
mittee, refers to the immense amount of material collected,
varying in period, quality, place and aspect to an extent which
greatly impairs its usefulness ; and he considers this to be the
reason why the ethnological literature of Europe is either silent
on the subject of Siberia, or merely touches on it lightly. The
same writer enumerates three errors frecpiently met with in
descriptions of the country : (1) Confusion of the tribes. Thus
explorers have failed to distinguish until lately the Gilyak from
the Tungusic tribes ; the Ostyak-Samoyed have been confounded
with the Ugrian Ostyak : the Turkic tribe of Altaians proper,
because they were ruled for some time by the Kalmuk, are often
called 'the Mountain (or White) Kalmuk', and are by some
writers actually confused wath the Kahnuk, who ai-e Mongols ;
and so on. (2) Incorrectness in delimiting frontiers. (3) In-
accuracy in reckoning the numbers of natives.

' The Black Faith, or SJiamanishi among the Moiujoh, 1891, p. 1.

- Op. cit., p. 3.

' The Sibcriati Aboricfinea, thiir Moile of Life and Present Condition,
Petersburg, 1891, Treface.

* Statistical Data for the Racial Composition of the Population of Siberia,
its Language and Tribes, Petersburg, 1912, p. 1.


The second i>t these errors is due to the fact that many tribes
are either nomads or mere wanderers. As to the numerical
reckoning of the peoples, the payment of i/asi/k (taxes) being
made proportionate to the numbers of the tribe, the natives are
not anxious to assist in revealing the true state of affaii-s.

Of the numerous important problems which confront us in
the study of Siberia, one of the most interesting is that attacked
by the Jesup Expedition, namely, the connexion between the
Asiatic aborigines of the North-East and the North-Western
Amerinds. Also there is the question of the relation between
the Neo-Siberians and the Palaeo-Siberians, and the question of
the relation of the different tribes within these groups to each
other. The question of the migrations of the last ten centuries
is closely connected with the foregoing subjects of research, and
no less imi>ortant is the study of whatever information can be
gathered concerning tribes Avhich have become extinct almost
within the present generation, such as the Arine, Kotte, Assan,
and Tuba,^ of which the last named were related to the Ostyak
of the Yenisei.- Some Turkic tribes of the Altai still call
themselves Tuba, a fact which suggests the possibility of an
admixture with the old Tuba of Yenisei.^ The Ostyak of
Yenisei are themselves dying out ; so also are the Yukaghir
of the north-east. The latter are the last survivors of a large

' All these tribes are referred to in Chinese chronicles of the seventh
century as the nation of Tupo, inhabiting the region of the Upper Yenisei
and the northern Altai.

- Yadrintzeff, op. cit., preface, p. 8.

^ No longer ago tluin the year 1753 Gmelin saw some of the Arine
(Deniker, Races of Man, 1900, p. 366), but already in 1765-6 Fischer
states that the Arine no longer exist [Sihirische Geschtchte, 1768, pp. 138-
387). Castren (1854-7) came across some five Kotte who made it possible
for him to learn their language (EfJinol. Varies, uher die alfaisch. Volk.,
1855, p. 87). The Omok, living in large numbers between the rivers
Yana and Kolyma, are mentioned in Wx-angefs work, Jounuii to the North
Coast of Siberia and the Polar Sea, 1841, p. 81. Argentotf speaks of the
Chellag in his The Northern Land, I. R. G. S., 1861, vol. ii, p. 18. Mention
is made of the Anaul in Muller's Sammlung ion linssische Geschichte, 1758,
vol. iii, p. 11. From these sources we learn of great tribal meetings
between the Chellag and the Omok, and of wars between the Cossacks
under Dejnefl' and the Anaul in 1649. Deniker supposes (Tfie Races of
Man, 1908, p. 370j that the disappearance of the tribes is more apparent
than real, that the Anaul and the Omok (whose name is a general term,
signifying • tribe 'j were in fact branches of the Yukaghir, and that the
Chellag were a Chukchee tribe. But this is mere conjecture (see Schrenck,
TJie Natives of the Amur Coiintri/, 1883, p. 2).


family of tribes which included the now extinct Omok, Chellag,
and Annul. Indeed, until Jochelson liad investigated the Yuka-
ghir, it Avas generally tliought that they, too, were extinct, or
had become absorbed by the Lanuit-Tungus.

If the Kanichadal had not been described by Steller and
Krasheuinnikoff, we sliould now have as little knowledge of
them as we have of the extinct tribes, since the Kamchadal
are now quite intermixed with Eussians.

Perhaps the most neglected of the surviving peoples are the
Tungus and the Ostyak of the Yenisei ; for the north-east is
' under the microscope ' of American workers (including some
Russian scientists), and the Samoyedic and Fimiic tribes are
being investigated l»y the scientists of Finland. As to the Mon-
gols and Turks, they have always been to some extent under
the eye of the Orientalists both of Russia and of western
Europe, though the anthropology of the Orient has been over
much neglected in i'a\our of its linguistics and literature.

The author has found it impossible to include in the present
work an account of the physical anthropology and technology
of the aborigines of Siberia. Xor has it been possible to
describe here the prehistoric life of this region, of which the
Yenisei valley alone can supply so wide a field for research.
These will form the subject of a future work.

Before closing these observations the author would like to say
a few words with regard to the orthography of the non-English
words which occur in the text and notes.

All native as well as Russian terms have l^een spelt as simply
as possible, allowance being made for the fact that all foreign
vowel sounds are pronounced by English people in very nmch
the same way as those of modern Italian. The names of Polish
authors, as they are written in Latin letters, have been left un-
changed. The Russian names ending similarly to the Polish
{sJci or cJii) are variously spelt elsewhere in Latin characters.

In regard to this point, the author has borrowed a hint from
the only modern original article on this region written in
English by a Russian, namely The Bunjats, by D. Klementz,
in Hastings's Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Klementz


has adopted the same spelling for the ending of Russian names
when written in Latin characters as for similar Polish names
(i.e. not ski/ or sJcii but sJci).

The native words taken from the publications of the Jesiip N. P.
Expedition are written minus the numerous phonetic signs.
Any one desiring more intimate linguistic acquaintance with
them can always refer to the original.

There is one sound, veiy often met with in the native words
used in this work, which it is impossible to transliter.ato into
western European tongues, namely a hard /. written f in Polish,
and in Russian ordinary I witli a hard vowel following. Thus
the words Allakh, Boldokhoy ought to be pronounced some-
thing like Aouakh, Booudokhoy.

The following abbreviations have been used :

I. R. A. S. — Bulletin of the Imperial Russian Academy of Science.

I. R. G. S. — Bulletin of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society.

E. S.S. I. R.G.S.— Bulletin of the East Siberian Section of the Im-
perial Russian Geographical Society (the Ethnographical Section).

W. S.S. I. R.G.S. -Bulletin of the West Siberian Section of the Im-
perial Russian Geographical Society (the Ethnographical Section).

A.S.I. R. G. S. — Bulletin of the Amur Section of the Imperial Russian
Geographical Society.

S. S. A. C— Bulletin of the Society for the Study of the Amur Country.

I. S. F. S. A. E.— Bulletin of the Imperial Society of Friends of Natural
Science, Anthropology and Ethnography.

J. N. P. E. — Memoir of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition.

R.A.J. — Russian Anthropological Journal.

E. R. — EtJinological Review.

L. A. T. — Living Ancient Times.

E.R. E. — Hastings's Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics.





TURKU 1922

Helsinki 1922,

Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran Kirjapainon Osakeyhtio.

The Shaman Costume and its Significance.

It is unknown whether the ancient Finnish sorcerer, noiia,
who for the performance of his duties fell into »trances», pos¬
sessed any special magic equipment. The Finnish word kan-
nas, appearing in North-Finnish and Russian Carelian folklore
denotes the magic drum of the Lapps. Whether any other
Finno-Ugrians than the Lapps, and in addition, the Ostiaks
and Vog'ules in Siberia should have used these drums, we have
no information. Even in excavated graves no traces of them
have been found. Still more difficult is the tracing of a shaman
costume for the Finno-Ugrians, which costume, together
with the drum, formed the most important equipment of the
Siberian shaman.

It was believed, indeed, in Russian Carelia, that the pow¬
er of the noiia was transferred to his pupil, should the sor¬
cerer present the latter with his cap and tinder-box. Simul¬
taneously, the former owner of these articles lost his magic
powers. Also in some of the initiation ceremonies for a new
noiia, the!' head-dress had a certain significance attached to
it, therone performing the ceremony placing his cap on the
head of the one to be initiated. Further, attention is drawn
to the head-dress of the noiia by those folk-songs, in which
the word lakkipdd (’becapped’) is used as a variant for the
name of the sorcerer. Can it be possible that these slight items
of knowledge, in particular the last-mentioned, contain, as
Julius Krohn (Suomen suvun pak. jumalanpalv. 129) assu¬
med. »a memorial of a special shaman costume in Finland))?

The belief that a person could transfer his powers to an¬
other along with some object with which he has for a longer
period been in close connection is based on a very common
magical conception, and need not as such presuppose any¬
thing out of the common in the article itself. The term, also,
lakkipaa, as a name for the sorcerer, need not imply the exis¬
tence of a special head-dress for the shaman, in some manner
connected with his activities. It may mean only that the noita
wore his cap in the performance of his duties. In this way we
know the Lapps to have acted. Among the old people in Fin¬
nish Lapland a memory still exists of the covering of the sor¬
cerer’s head each time he began his incantations (Appelgren,
Muinaism. Ylidist. Aikak. V, 60)./ But in spite of this there are
no traditions among the Lapps regarding the existence of a
special shaman-cap or costume. I he latter are unmentioned
in the accounts of missionaries dating from the close of the
seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth,
neither is there any note of them in the earliest account of
all, written in the thirteenth century, which otherwise desci i-
bes in detail the magic ceremonies and the magic drum of the
Western Lapps, even to the pictures on the latter (P. A. Munch,
Symbolae ad historian! antiquiorem rerum norvegicarum, 4—5,
De finnis). All that is mentioned is that when the sorcerer
made his preparations for the task imposed on him by his posi¬
tion, he placed himself Hinder an outspread cloth» ( magus ex-
tenso panno sub quo se ad profundus veneficas incantationes
praeparet), which in all probability covered his head and fea¬
tures. The spread cloth cannot mean a regular shaman costume;
there is no doubt but that the alien eye-witness would have
mentioned the fact, had the Lapp shaman actually r dressed
himself in a special costume. On the base of information from
Russian Lapland, Satkov (Izv. Arkhang. O. d. Iz. R. Seveia,
1911, 486—7) speaks of a kind of shaman-belt in three colours
used there, which was girded on by the sorcerer before falling
asleep, in the belief that he would obtain desired information

The shaman costume and its significance.


during his sleep. The habit, of all to judge an isolated, private
one, is probably a later invention, as it is in conflict with at
least that conception of other Lapps, viz., that the noidde,
and even his assistant, as related by Leem (Beskrivelse, 475),
must take off their belts, which were obviously believed to
prevent the soul of the shaman from leaving his body. A simi¬
lar belief is met with in Siberia, e. g., among the Yakuts, whose
shaman Solovyev (Sbornik gaz. »Sibir» I, 410) says he lets
loose the bands of belts and even of hair. If thus we find no
trace or mention of any kind of shaman costume among the
Lapps, amongst whom the shaman with his drum has existed
up to a quite recent time, there is still less reason to suppose
the Finns proper, or the other Baltic Finns, to have preserved
a memory of a shaman costume, which in the mists of anti¬
quity may have been in use among them.

Neither do we find among the Volga peoples or the Per-
mians (Sirians and Votyakes) any signs hinting at the use
of a special shaman costume by their sorcerers. Not even in
the Life of St. Stefan (f 1396), the converter of the Sirians,
which otherwise contains valuable information regarding the
beliefs and customs of those times, among other matters a
mention of the famous sorcerer, Pam, is there anything said
which could point to the existence of special equipment among
these shamans of the earliest stage. Not until we come to the
Ugrian dwelling-places in Siberia do we find any mention of
such. Even here, however, the reports of the use of a shaman
costume are restricted to the most northern and eastern Ostiak
territories, and it is difficult to be quite certain whether the
custom in question relates to the Ostiaks or their neighbours,
the Samoyedes. Should the Ostiaks in some districts have
made use of shaman costumes, the custom might still, as Kar-
jalainen (Jugral. usk. 554) points out, be explained as having
sprung from an alien, Samoyede example.

Among the Samoyedes, shaman costumes are met with


Uno Holmbekg.

already on the European side. Veniamin (Vestnik R. Geogr.
0. 1855, 118), whose account deals with the Yuraks of the
Mezen District in the Government of Archangel, relates that

Fig. 1. Yakut shaman costume seen from behind. Bird-type.
After E. Pekarskiy. (Note the ribs and the bones
of the arm hanging under the sleeves.)

the local shamans used a long chamois cloak of reindeer-skin,
which was »decorated with tassdls, iron figures, buttons, and
other pendants». As the most important feature of the shaman
costume he mentions a special head-dress, called the »eye-
coverer». Finscii (Reise, 55), who in his wanderings in the

The shaman costume and its significance.


seventies in Siberia saw a Samoyede shaman dressed in a soil¬
ed white cloak, decorated with galloons, relates having heard
that leather costumes fitted with iron plates were no longer
the fashion».

The Samoyede costume with »iron gewgaws» attached has,
however, in other places, been in use much later, although the
best preserved specimens are now perhaps collected already
in the museums. Closely related with these »iron costumes*)
is without doubt the one described by Beliavskiy in his work
»A Journey to the Arctic*), published in 1833. This costume,
called Ostiak by him, is »sewn of reindeer-skins, and is long
and fitted with sleeves. Its significance lies in the number
of metal hooks, rings, plates and rattles which, mostly of iron,
cover the costume so completely that it is impossible to see
of what material the latter is made*). In addition, he relates
of a special shaman head-dress, which was made of strips of
cloth of different colours. Sometimes the shaman would add
to the above an iron ring round his head »to show that other¬
wise the skull might burst with the power of his wizardry*
(Poyezdka, 115). Karjalainen (Jugr. usk. 552) assumed
that Beliavskiy no describes sights seen by him when he speaks
of »the iron material and the exaggerated number of gew¬
gaws*). However this may be, the foregoing description is
typical of the shaman costumes of many of the North Siberian

Gazing at these costumes, the question arises — what
has been the original purport of these strange garments? Kar¬
jalainen discusses the question in his work »The Religion
of the Ugrians*) and comes to the conclusion that »the purpose
of the costume was apparently twofold; partly it was intended
to affect the spectator, but the main purpose was probably
directed towards the spirits. The effigies of animals are the
shaman’s assistants, containing thus his magic powers, the
rings and metal figures, little bells etc., give forth music.



But m addition, according to the views prevalent in many

districts, it was essential for

Fig. 2.

Covering for the breast worn by
Yakut shaman. After
E. Pekarskiy.

a shaman to hide his everyday
apparition when performing his
duties, in order to be left in
peace at other times by the
spirits which he had called to
his assistance while practising
his art; the purpose of the co¬
stume was thus also to deceive
the spirits*) (Jugr. usk. 552; cfr.
Miiiailovskiy, Samanstvo, 72
—3). This explanation by Kar-
jalainen undoubtedly hits the
mark in its reading of the purp¬
ort of the animal effigies at¬
tached to the costume, but the
significance of the costume it¬
self would seem to be unclear
to him.

A closer insight into the mat¬
ter is possible only after the
sifting of a wide field of com¬
parative material. And for this
reason we will examine all the
shaman costumes which have
been in use among the large
Altaic race of Siberia. To this

same civilization, embracing the use of the shaman costume,
belong also the Yenisei-Ostiaks, the Samoyedes, and the Ug-
rians living in the vicinity of the latter, as far as they can
actually be said to have made use of shaman costumes. The
most eastern tribes of North Siberia, such as the Chukchee,

the Koriaks etc., who have also possessed shamans, but who
form another circle of civilization, fall outside of the bound¬
aries of this investigation. The tribes belonging to the Altaic

The shaman costume and its significance. 9

race whom we know to have used shaman costumes are thus:
the various Tungus tribes, the Yakuts and the Dolganes, small
Tartar tribes living in the vicinity of Altai mountains, the north¬
ern Mongols and the Buriats. Most probably these costumes
have earlier been used also by Kirghis and the other southern
Tartar tribes before their conversion to Islam, and similarly,
by the Kalmucks, before these went over to the religion of the
Thibetans. Many even of the Tartar tribes from around the
Altai have given up the use of shaman costumes, nor have the
Buriats preserved theirs, but the iron objects found in the
burial-places of the shamans show the latter to have dressed
themselves in earlier times in costumes similar to those used
even to-day among the more northern tribes.

Generally, shaman costumes are beginning to decline
everywhere, although the belief in shamanism still prevails.
Certain older sources already relate of Siberian shamans who
practised their art in everyday dress. These reports may pos¬
sibly have their foundation in the unwillingness of primitive
peoples, more especially their shamans,. to show their most
sacred possessions when this can be avoided, but it is also
known with certainty that the old costumes had in some di¬
stricts already at an early date lost their earlier importance,
as soon as their purpose had been forgotten. The other
magic instruments, such as the drum, would seem to have
been more essential to the shaman, and their use has there¬
fore been able to survive that of the costumes.

The development from a costumed shaman to one with¬
out. special garments has however proceeded, and still pro¬
ceeds, gradually. In the twinkling of an eye no old beliefs
or customs can altogether disappear. While the complete
shaman costume was composed earlier of many separate art¬
icles of clothing: the cloak itself, a covering for the breast
hung round the neck under the opening of - the cloak, high
footwear, these reaching at times high enough to cover the
thighs, gloves or gauntlets and a head-dress, one can observe


Uno Holmbeeo.

during the degeneration of the costume how generally first the
gauntlets — if these have actually been everywhere in use —

and then the boots disappear. The cloak

# and the head-dress seem able to contend

for themselves longer, sometimes the
former, sometimes the latter remaining
behind as a memento of the ancient
costume of the shaman. The earlier head¬
dress has in some places been supersed¬
ed by gewgaws hung round an ordinary
cap or, as is the case with the Lebed-
Tartars, simply by a woman’s veil
wound round the head while practising
Bpdte the art of shamanism (Fig. 3; K. Hilden,

BP fpyt. Terra, 1916, 136 ff.). The Buriats have

,S' I:;'‘ r. . begun, in the place of the former co-

J stumc and drum, to use two sticks,
which they call »horses» (hobbyhorses),

Lebed-Tartar 3 ' shaman the handles of which they sometimes
in his present attire, carve into the shape of a horse’s head
After a photograph by an( j phe lower ends to resemble hoofs

(Fig. 14). At times, the middle of the
stick is made to look like a »knee» (Agapitov and Kiiangalov,
Izv. Yost.-Sib. 0. R. Geogr. 0. XIV, 1 —2, 42—3). A similar
method of communication has been known also to the Black-
forest Tartars, who called however only one of the sticks the
’horse’ (Potanin, Ocerki, IV, 54). Generally, small bells, the.
skins of small wild animals, etc., have been tied to these hobby¬

horses (cfr. Scand. ganritf).

The degeneration of the shaman costume among even
the northern tribes implies not only the disappearance of vari¬
ous parts of the costume, but also the falling-away and loss
of the articles made of iron and other materials which formerly

were hung on the costume. In older times the usual custom
on the death of a shaman was to array the latter in the costume

The shaman costume and its significance.


in which he had practised his art, the body being then placed
either in a burial-place on the ground or more often in the
aerial tomb generally used by Siberian tribes. Later, it has
become the habit in many places for the relatives to rip off
all the metal figures and gewgaws from the shaman’s costume
at his death, and to preserve them until a new shaman of the
same family appears, when the gewgaws are attached to his
costume, if possible, in their right places. It is possible, how¬
ever, for small mistakes to occur,(which are then handed down
in the family to the following costumes. The investigator need
not be led astray by these accidents, provided he has a suffi¬
ciency of costumes as material and can compare- these.

Fully complete shaman costumes with all the essential
parts intact and the various objects belonging to the same are
seldom met with nowadays even in the remotest districts of
Siberia. But in the museums at Yakutsk, Irkutsk, Minusinsk,
Krasnoyarsk etc and, above all, in the great museums at Petro-
grad, we can become acquainted with wealthy and invaluable
collections of costumes and objects, including complete sha¬
man costumes, the whole forming a material widely illustra¬
tive of shamanism. And with the help of these complete cos¬
tumes we can use for our investigation also other costumes,
more or less affected by the tooth of time; and in their light,
the scanty descriptions of shaman costumes met with here
and there in literature relating to Siberia become possessed
of great importance.

Starting from these different sources of information, our
collection of facts is wide enough to admit of an attempt at a
reconstruction of the intention of the said costumes. To reach
down to the marrow of the question we must first establish
the fact that not all of the many »gewgaws» with which the
costume was hung are as common or as essential. Many of
them are accidental, and these have each their own history.
But even those objects, which over a wide area, in the cos-



tumes of different peoples, would seem to play an important
part, are not always so closely connected with the costume
as a whole as to throw light on the nature of this peculiar gar¬
ment. Of these secondary objects, as they might well be ter¬
med, which are usually made of iron, may be mentioned the
sun and moon, a kind of metal mirror with figures of twelve
animals representing the twelve signs of the Zodiac (some¬
times roughly imitated also by certain northern tribes), a round
flat ’earth-disc’, through the hole in the centre of which the
shaman is said to visit the underworld, and further, figures
representing certain species of assistant-animals to the shaman,
quadrupeds, reptiles, fish, snakes and, in special measure
birds, mostly the loom and other diving birds, which are regard¬
ed as sacred] and are believed to assist the shaman on his
spirit-journeys (Figs. 1, 2, 11). The more assistant-animals
a shaman possessed, their effigies in iron or brass or their skins
being sometimes hung also from the head-dress of the shaman,
the more mighty was he in the eyes of his tribe. Altogether
for the sake of this outward reputation, however, these effi¬
gies Avere not attached to the costume, each having its oavii
significance. In many costumes the effigies of human-like
spirits e\ r en are seen.

Besides these objects, important enough from the sha¬
man’s point of vieAV, but secondary in importance compared
with the costume itself, and A\ r hose intention we do not intend
to study in detail, their significance being often independant of
the costume, the latter contains, especially among the northern
tribes, many other objects of iron, which are an integral part
of the costume and tend to make the same heavy and uncom¬
fortable. Generally, the costumes are also in this respect not
ahvays as perfect, iioav this and now that iron plate or hanging
having dropped off; often, they have strayed from their orig¬
inal site, sometimes only one or two being left to shoAV the
origin of the costume. In this state, as individual phenonema,

The shaman costume and its significance. 13

their meaning cannot be divined. Not until Ave liave before
us a Avell-preserved shaman costume with all its parts from
head-dress to footAvear, not set together of parts of different
costumes, as is sometimes the case in museums, and has pos¬
sibly also happened in practice, but forming a whole, then
only does the secret of these mysterious costumes seem to
solve itself. They are seen, not as products of the temporary
whims of individual shamans or as the result of accidental

About this site / Contest for the 12 (zodiac) goddess of the months !
« on: June 16, 2019, 11:43:40 PM »
Contest for the 12 (zodiac) goddess of the months !

We're looking for 12 goddesses, one for every month,(twelve signs of the zodiac) ,
SO girls between 18-26 approx, send your pics in unicolor bikini or nude, frontal, eyes(face) masked.
Pics will come in gallery for members to vote on.
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Genealogy / Origin Aryan Race 1888
« on: June 15, 2019, 09:04:26 PM »






Itis our purpose briefly to outline the history of the
 Aryan Race, — that great and noble family of
mankind which has played so striking a part upon the
stage of the world; to seek it in its primitive home,
observe the unfoldment of its beliefs and institutions,
follow it in its migrations, consider the features of its
intellectual supremacy, and trace the steps by which it
has gained its present high position among the races of
mankind. The story of this people, despite the great
interest which surrounds it, remains unwritten in any
complete sense. There are many books, indeed, which
deal with it fragmentarily, — some devoted to its lan-
guages, others to its mythology, folk-lore, village com-
munities, or to some other single aspect of its many
sided story; yet no general treatment of the subject
lias been essayed, and the inquirer who wishes to learn
what is known of this interesting people must painfully
delve through a score of volumes to gain the desired

Until within a recent period the actual existence of
such a race was not clearly recognized. A century


ago there was nothing to show that nearly all the
nations of Europe and the most prominent of those
of southern Asia were first-cousins, descended from a
single ancestor, which, not very remotely in the past,
inhabited a contracted locality in some region as yet
unknown. Of late years much has been learned of the
conditions and mode of life of this people in their
original home, and of their migrations to the point
where they enter the field of written history. From
this point forward the part played by the Aryans in
the history of mankind has been a highly important
one, and there is no more interesting study than to
follow this giant from the days of its childhood to
those of its present imposing stature.

Our knowledge of the condition of the primitive
Aryans is not due only to studies in philology. The
subject has widened with the progress of research, and
now embraces questions of ethnology, archaeology,
mythology, literature, social and political antiquities,
and all the other branches of science which relate
particularly to the development of mankind. Enough
has been learned, through studies in these several
directions, to make desirable a general treatment of
the subject, and an effort to present as a whole the
story of that mighty race whose history is as yet
known to the world only in disconnected fragments.
The present work, however, pretends to be no more
than a preliminary handling of this extensive theme,


a brief popular exposition which may serve to fill a
gap in the realm of literature and to satisfy the curi-
osity of the reading world until some abler hand shall
grasp the subject and deal with it in a more exhaustive

Any attempt, indeed, to tell the story of the Aryan
race, even in outline, during the recent age of mankind
would be equivalent to an attempt to write the history
of civilization, — which is far from our purpose. But
in the comparison of the intellectual conditions and
products of the several races of mankind, and in the
consideration of the evolution of human institutions
and lines of thought and action, we have a field of
research which is by no means exhausted, and with
which the general world of readers is very little con-
versant. Our work will therefore be found to be
largely comparative in treatment, the characteristics
and conditions of the other leading races of mankind
being considered, and contrasted with those of the
Aryan, with the purpose not only of clearly showing
the general superiority of the latter, but also of point-
ing out the natural steps of evolution through which
it emerged from original savagery and attained to its
present intellectual supremacy and advanced stage of

As regards the sources of the information con-
veyed in the following pages, we shall but say that
all the statements concerning questions of fact have


been drawn from trustworthy authors, many of whom
are quoted in the text, — though it has not been
deemed necessary to crowd the pages with citations
of authorities.

In respect to the theoretical views advanced, they
are as a rule the author’s own, and must stand or fall
on their merits. Finally, it is hoped that the work
may prove of interest and value to those who simply
desire a general knowledge of the subject, and may in
some measure serve as a guide to those more ardent
students who prefer to continue the study by the
consultation of original authorities.


I.   Types op Mankind.............................. 1

II.   The Home of the Aryans........................30

III.   The Aryan Outflow.............................54

IY.   The Aryans at Home............................89

Y.   The Household and the Village................106

YI.   The Double System of Aryan Worship ....   132

VII.   The Course of Political Development ....   153

VIII.   The Development of Language..................189

IX.   The Age of Philosophy......................  215

X.   The Aryan Literature.........................243

XI.   Other Aryan Characteristics..................2/3

XII.   Historical Migrations........................290

XIII.   The Puture Status of Human Paces.............308





OMEWHERE, no man can say just where ; at some

time, it is equally impossible to say when, — there
dwelt in Europe or Asia a most remarkable tribe or family
of mankind. Where or when this was we shall never
clearly know. No history mentions their name or gives
a hint of their existence; no legend or tradition has
floated down to us from that vanished realm of life. Not
a monument remains which we can distinguish as reared
by the hands of this people; not even the grave of one of
its members can be traced. Flourishing civilizations were
even then in existence; Egypt and China wrere already
the seats of busy life and active thought. Yet no prophet
of these nations saw the cloud on the sky “ of the size of
a man’s hand,” — a cloud destined to grow until its mighty
shadow should cover the whole face of the earth. As yet
the fathers of the Aryan race dwelt in unconsidered bar-
barism, living their simple lives and thinking their simple
thoughts, of no more apparent importance than hundreds
of other primeval tribes, and doubtless undreaming of the
grand part they were yet to play in the drama of human




Yet strangely enough this utterly prehistoric and ante-
legendary race, this dead scion of a dead past, has been
raised from its grave and displayed in its ancient shape
before the eyes of man, until we know its history as satis-
factorily as we know that of many peoples yet living upon
the face of the earth. We may not know its time or place
of existence, the battles it fought, the heroes it honored,
the songs it sang. But we know the words it spoke, the
gods it worshipped, the laws it made. We know the char-
acter of its industries and its possessions, its family and
political relations, its religious ideas and the conditions of
its intellectual development, its race-characteristics, and
much of the details of its grand migrations after its
growing numbers swelled beyond the boundaries of their
ancestral home, and went forth to conquer and possess
the earth.

How we have learned all this forms one of the most
interesting chapters in modern science. The reality of
our knowledge cannot be questioned. No history is half
so trustworthy. Into all written histoiy innumerable errors
creep ; but that unconscious history which survives in the
languages and institutions of mankind is, so far as it goes,
of indisputable authenticity. It is not, indeed, history in
its ordinary sense. It yields us none of the superficial and
individual details in the story of a people’s life, the deeds
of warriors and the tyrannies of rulers, the conquests,
rebellions, and class-struggles, the names and systems of
priests and law-givers, with which historians usually deal,
and which they weave into a web of inextricably-mingled
truth and falsehood. It is the rock-bed of history with
which we are here concerned, the solid foundation on
which its superficial edifice is built. We know nothing of


the deeds of this antique race. We are ignorant of the
numbers of its people, the location and extent of its terri-
tory, the period of its early development. But we know
much of its basal history, —that history which has wrought
itself deeply into the language, customs, beliefs, and insti-
tutions of its modern descendants, and which crops out
everywhere through the soil of modern European civiliza-
tion, as the granite foundations of the earth’s strata break
through the superficial layers, and reveal the conditions of
the remote past.

Such a germinal history of a people may very possibly
lack interest. It has in it nothing of the dramatic, nothing
on which the imagination can seize ; none of those per-
sonal details or stirring incidents which so strongly arrest
the attention of readers ; nothing to arouse the feelings or
awaken the passions and emotions of mankind. It has
none of the ever-alluring interest of individual human life,
— the hopes and fears, the joys and sorrows, the sajungs
and doings of men, great and small, which give to the
gossipy details of history an attractiveness only a degree
below that of the imaginative novel. Over our work we
can cast none of this glamour of individualism. We have
to do with man in the mass, and to treat history as a
philosophy instead of as a romance. We are limited to
the description of what he has done, not how^ he did it,
and to the detail of results instead of processes. And
yet history in ‘its modern era is rapidly entering this philo-
sophic stage. For many centuries it has been confined to
the romance of individual life. It is now verging toward
the philosophy of existence, the scientific study of human
development. Kings and courtiers have too long dwarfed
the people. But the stature of the people is increasing,


and that of rulers and heroes diminishing, while a growing
interest in the story of humanity as a whole is succeeding
that in the lives of individuals. This gives us some war-
rant for venturing to describe the history of a race whose
ancient life we know only as a whole, and of which we
cannot give the name of one of its heroes, the scene of
one of its exploits, or even the region of the earth which
it occupied. Yet this race is so important a one, and its
later history has been so grand and exciting, that the story
of what is known of its primitive life can scarcely fail to
find an interested audience, particularly when we remember
that we are here dealing with our own ancestors, and trac-
ing the pedigree of our own customs and institutions.

In this inquiry it is necessary to begin by considering
the claim of the Aryans to the title of “ race.” What posi-
tion do they hold in the category of human races, and what
were the steps of their derivation and development from
primitive man? We must locate them first as members of
the broad family of mankind before we can fairly enter
into tire study of their record as a separate group. We
have spoken of them somewhat indefinitely as a race,
family, or tribe. Indeed, they cannot justly be honored
with the title of race until we know more fully in what the
race-characteristic consists, and what is their claim to its
possession. In this respect ethnologists have so many
varying ideas that the number and limitations of the
human races are still far from being settled. We can
therefore but briefly detail some of the latest views upon
the subject.

« on: October 12, 2018, 05:27:05 PM »



Adriana Hamorova
What Happens When You Die


Spirits who believe in Reincarnation

Q&A From Spirits

Fear Processing

Law Of Attraction (the real one)

Law Of Desire

Secrets Of The Universe

History / The Dawn of European Civilization By V. GORDON CHILDE 1923
« on: March 24, 2018, 08:53:06 PM »

The Dawn of

European Civilization






D.Litt., D.Sc.

Professor of Prehistoric European Archeology, University of London



 First Edition 1925
Second Edition 1927


Chapter  I.   SURVIVALS OF FOOD-GATHERERS ....         i
II.   The Orient and Crete .....         15
III.   Anatolia the Royal Road to the Aegean         35
IV.   Maritime Civilization in the Cyclades .         48
V.   From Village to City in Greece         57
VI.   Farming Villages in the Balkans .         84
VII.   Danubian Civilization .....         105
VIII.   The Peasants of the Black Earth         136
IX.   Culture Transmission over the Eurasian Plain?         148
X.   The Northern Cultures .....         175
XI.   Survivals of the Forest Culture .         203
XII.   Megalith Builders and Beaker-folk         213
XIII.   Farmers and Traders in Italy and Sicily         229
XIV.   Island Civilizations in the Western Mediterranean         252
XV.   The Iberian Peninsula . . . .         265
XVI.   Western Culture in the Alpine Zone .         287
XVII.   Megalith Builders in Atlantic Europe .         303
XVIII.   The British Isles ......         322
XIX.   Retrospect: The Prehistory of European Society         341
   Notes on Terminology .....         353
   Abbreviations .......      •   354
   Books ........      •   358



Magdalenian harpoon from Cantabria and Azilian harpoons


Geometric microliths and microgravers from Franconia

{after Gumpert) .........

Microliths from Muge, Portugal, and transverse arrow-
head SHAFTED FROM DENMARK ..............

"Lyngby axe” of reindeer antler, Holstein

Maglemosian types from Zealand ......


Neolithic figurines from Crete and their relatives {after
Evans) ..........

Early Minoan III "teapots” and button seal {after Evans) .

The Minoan "Mother Goddess” and {left) Horns of Consecra-
tion, from a sealing {after Evans) .....

Minoan axes, axe-adzes and double axe, and seal impressions

{after Evans and Mon. Ant.) .......

(1) Early Minoan daggers, (2) Stone beads {after Evans) .

Middle Minoan I-II daggers {after Evans) ....

{after Evans) .   ........

(1) Late Mycenzean short sword, (2) Middle Minoan spear-
head   ..........

Egyptian representations of Vapheio cups ....

Pottery from Thermi I-II(A) and III-IY(B) {after Lamb, BSA.,

"Megaron” palace, Troy II .   ............

Pottery from Troy II .......

Knife and daggers and gold vessels, Troy II {Museum f.
Vorgeschichte, Berlin) ........

Battle-axe, gold-capped bead, and crystal pommel from
Treasure L, and stray axe-adze {Museum f. Vorgeschichte,
Berlin) ..........

Gold earring and pendant from Treasure A, pin from
Treasure D, bracelet from Treasure F, and knot-headed
pins {Museum f. Vorgeschichte, Berlin)

Tomb-group. Amorgos ......

Cycladic "frying-pan” and sherd showing boat .

Tombs on Syros and Eubcea ,

























26.   Slotted spear-head (showing method of mounting), halberd


27.   Early Cycladic ornaments: Paros; Syros ....   54

28.   Cycladic pottery: (i) Pelos; (2) Phylakopi I; (3) Phylakopi

II (L.C.).................................................55

29.   Thessalian stone axes and adzes (after Tsountas) ...   59

30.   Pottery of Sesklo style, white on red and red on white

(after Wace and Thompson) .......   59

31.   Neolithic figurines, Thessaly (after Wace and Thompson)   .   61

32.   Miniature altar or throne (after Wace and Thompson)   .   .   62

33.   Plan of fortified village of Dimini (after Tsountas)   .   .   63

34.   Dimini bowl and gold-ring pendant (after Tsountas)   .   .   64

35.   Axe and battle-axes from H. Mamas (after Heurtley, BSA.,


36.   Early Helladic sauce-boat, askos, tankard, and jar   .   .   70

37.   Early Macednic pot-forms (after Heurtley, B.S.A., XXVIII) .   71

38.   Anchor Ornament, Kritsana...................................  71

39.   Spear-head, knives, and dagger from M.H. graves in

Thessaly (after Tsountas) .......   73

40.   Minyan pottery from Thessaly, and imitations from Thermon,

JJtolia ..........   74

41.   Matt-painted bowl and pithos from J£gina; and M.C. jugs

from Marseilles harbour and Phylakopi ....   75

42.   Matt-painted jar, Lianokladhi III (after Wace and Thompson).   76

43.   Terminal and pattern-bored spacer-bead from amber neck-

lace: Shaft Grave at Mycenze ......   79

44.   Mycenzean tholos tomb on Eubcea (after Papavasileiou) .   .   81

45.   Clay loom-weights and bone spatula of Kor6s culture .   86

46.   Cruciform-footed bowl in fine Starcevo ware, and jar of

rusticated Koros style .   .   .   .   .   .   .   87

47.   Bone combs and ring-pendant, Tordos, and ‘‘harpoon’’, Vinca   89

48.   "Face urn” lid from Vinca (after Vassits)   ....   go

49.   Mug, tripod bowl, and “altar” decorated by excision,

Banyata II .........   95

50.   Peg-footed vase from Denev ......   97

51.   Copper axe and adze from Gaborevo .....   99

52.   Gumelnija pottery: (i) Czernavoda; (2) Tel Metchkur;

(3-4) Tel Ratchev; (5-6) Kodja Berman ....   100

53.   Painted clay head, Vin£a .   .   .   .   .   .   .101

54.   Squatting figure, bone figurines and clay phallus, Bul-

garia ...........   102

55.   Models of houses, Denev .   .   .   .   .   .   .102

56.   Small Danubian I house from Saxony; the walls are marked

by a double row of posts (after Sangmeister) .   .   .107

































“Shoe-last celts” (after Seger) ......   107

DANUBIAN I POTTERY .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   108

Clay block vase, Moravia .   .   .   .   .   .   .114

Copper trinkets and triangular axe, Jordanova (after Seger) 114
DANUBIAN II POTTERY, LENGYEL   .   .   .   .   .   . II5

Stroke-ornamented vases, Bohemia; Rossen vases, Central

Germany ..........   117

Copper battle-axes, Hungary   .   .   .   .   .   .120

Copper axe-adzes and axes, Hungary   .   .   .   .   .121

Knobbed mace-head, Maros Decse   .   .   .   .   .122

Bodrogkeresztur pyxis and milk-jug (after Tompa) .   .   122

Pins and earrings from Unetician graves (after Schrdnil) .   129

Daggers from Unetician graves (after Schrdnil)   .   .   . 131

Hoard of Sobochleby (after Schrdnil)   .   .   .   .   .131

Bronze-hilted dagger (after Schrdnil)   .   .   .   .   .131

Bulb, disc, trilobate, and crutch-headed pins from later

Unetician graves (after Schrdnil) .....   133

Marschwitz and early Unetician pottery, Silesia and Bohemia

(after Stockf) .........   134

Model hut from Popudnia .   .   .   .   .   .   .138

Potters’ oven and model, Ariu^d (after Laszlo)   .   .   .   140

Tripolye types (after Passeh) .....................141

Stone sceptre-head, Fedele$eni, and clay stamp, Ariu^d .   143

Usatova types (after Passek) .   ...................146

Copper battle-axe, Vozdvizhenskaya, copper beads, copper

spear-head, copper and bone hammer-pins .   .   .   .151

Vases: (i) from Catacomb grave, Donetz; (2-3) from pit-graves,
Yatskovice, near Kiev; (4) from Yamno grave, Donetz;

(5) B FUNNEL BEAKER, DENMARK.....................I52

Transverse axe, axe-adze, knife, and gold and silver vases,


barrow ..........   133

(1) Megalithic cist, Novosvobodnaya; (2) Catacomb grave,

Donetz ..........   153

Pottery, weapons, tools, and pins from tomb at Novosvo-
bodnaya ..........   155

Pottery and battle-axes from the Single Graves of Jutland
and Sweden (after Fv, 1922)   .   .   .   .   .   .161

Saxo-Thuringian corded ware .......................163

Thuringian faceted battle-axe and Silesian battle-axe .   164

Zlota pottery (after Kozlowski)   .   .   .   .   .   .166

Fatyanovo battle-axe and Finnish boat-axe .   .   .   169

Fatyanovo pottery of the Moscow, Yaroslav, and CuvaS groups i 70



89. The Gali£ hoard .   ........   171

90.   Northern flint axes arranged according to Montelius’

typology {by permission of Trustees of British Museum) .   .   175

91.   A-type funnel-beakers, amphora, “baking plate” {after Becker)   178

92.   Tongued club-head, Denmark; polygonal battle-axe, Jordan-

ova; and flint axe of Eastern type   .   .   .   .   .179

93. Pottery from Danish dysser ......   181

94.   Grave 28 at Jordanova {after Seger)   .   .   .   .   .182

95.   Danish Passage Grave pottery of phases B and C; battle-axe

AND ARROW-HEAD   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   184

96.   Furniture of a grave at Zastow; and collared flask from

GRAVE AT NaLENCZOW   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   188

97.   Kuyavish grave, Swierczyn {after Kozlowski) .   189

98.   Walternienburg vases, Latdorf drum, and Baalburg jug .   193

99.   Globular amphorae from Saxo-Thuringia and Podolia, and


100.   Flint daggers and Swedish cists of Montelius'   IV   .   .197

101.   Section of the Leubingen barrow............................  200

102.   Bronze-shafted halberd and halberd-blade from Leubingen

barrow ..........   201

103.   (1) Pit-comb ware from Karelia; (2) vase of East Swedish

style from Aland Islands; (3) flint sculptures from
Volosovo ..........   204

104.   No ST vet and Suomusjarvi celts, and polished chisel and

adze .       205

105.   Maglemosian types which survive: (1-4) Esthonia {after Clark)',

(5) Ukraine; (6) leister from Ural peat bog   .   .   .   206

106.   Slate knives and dart-head, Sweden, stone mace-heads,

Finland, and slate pendant ......   207

107.   Knives and axe from Seim a hoard   .   .   .   .   .211

108.   Rock-cut tomb, Castelluccio, and corbelled tomb, Los

Millares ...................................................214

109.   Rock-cut tomb and naveta, Balearic Islands   .   .   .216

no.   Segmented cist, North Ireland, and Giants’ Tomb, Sardinia   217

in. Beakers: (1-2) Palmella, Portugal; (3) La Halliade, South

France; (4) Villafrati, Sicily .   .   .   .   .   .222

112.   Beaker, wrist-guard, and associated vases, Silesia {after

Seger) ...........   225

113.   West European dagger (Bohemia) and flint copy (Silesia);

arrow-straightener (Wiltshire); gold-leaf from wrist-
guard AND COPPER AWL, BOHEMIA .....   225

114.   South Italian painted pottery: (i) and (2) black on buff,

Serra d’Alto ware; (3) red and black on buff, Middle
Neolithic I, Megara Hyblzea ......   232






























Bossed bone plaque, Castelluccio (after Evans)

Copper and Early Bronze Age pottery: (1-2) pit-cave, Otranto;


(4-5) Castelluccio ware .......

View into chamber tomb, Castelluccio .....

Knife and razor, Pantalica .......


(1) Vase of North Italian Polada type; (2) square-mouthed
Copper daggers and flint copies, Remedello

Peschiera safety-pin (fibula)................

Plan of “temples” at Mnaidra, Malta .....

Tripod bowl, San Bartolomeo, and vase-handle of nose-
bridge TYPE, ANGHELU B.UJU ......

Plan and elevation of tomb XXbis at Anghelu Ruju .
Necklace from Anghelu Ruju ......

(1) Gouge, El Garcel; (2) schist adze, Portugal; (3) jar, El
Garcel ..........













Stages in conventionalization of parietal art in Spain {after
Obermaier)) A, Maimon; B, Figuras; C, La Pileta .   .   .   269

Flint arrow-heads: (i) Alcala; (5) Los Millares. Halberd
blades; (3) Casa da Moura; (4) Los Millares; (2) Palmella
points ..........   271

“Late Neolithic” vase from Tres Cabezos, and symbol vases
from Los Millares .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .272

Ritual objects: (i) Almeria; (2 and 4) Portugal; (3) Granada 273
Copper daggers and adze, AlcalA, and bone pin, Cabeqo da
Ministra. ..........   275

Plan of “neolithic” passage grave and part of the furniture,

S.E. Portugal [after Leisner) ......   277

Argaric burial-jar showing diadem, funerary vases, halberd,
dagger-blades, and sword {by permission of Trustees of British
Museum) ..........   283

Antler harpoon and bone arrow-head, Switzerland .   .   289

Cortaillod pottery {after ‘Antiquity’) .....   290

Plan of a house at Aichbuhl ......   292

Michelsberg pottery ........   294

Types of antler sleeves for axes: A-B, Lower; C, first in
Middle; D, first in Upper Neolithic; Lake NeuchAtel .   296

Bone copies of Unetician pins ......   297

Mondsee pottery .........   300

Vase-supports in Chassey style: (i) Le Moustoir, Carnac;

(2) Motte de la Garde, Charente........304



143.   Late Chalcolithic types from Cevennian cists: (a-e) Liquisse;

(f~i) Grotte d’en Quisse, Gard; (j-o) “dolmens” of Aveyron 308

144.   Polypod bowl, La Halliade .......   310

145.   Statue-menhirs from Gard and sculptured tomb, Petit

Morin (Marne) .........   312

146.   Horgen pot from Paris cist, and channelled pot from

Conguel, Morbihan .     *313

147.   Arc-pendant of stone .       313

148.   Passage grave, Kercado, Morbihan .....   316

149.   Breton Bronze Age vase .......   320

150.   Lop-sided, tanged-and-barbed and leaf-shaped arrow-heads   323

151.   Windmill Hill pot-forms (after Piggott) .....   324

152.   Passage grave in horned cairn, 240 ft. long, Yarrows,

Caithness .............................................  327

153.   Long stalled cairn, Midhowe, Rousay .....   327

154.   Gold earring .........   330

135.   Peterborough bowl from Thames, and sherds from West

Kennet Long Barrow (by permission of Trustees of British
Museum) ..........   333

156.   Evolution of a socketed spear-head in Britain (after Green-

well): (1) Hintlesham, Suffolk; (2) Snowshill, Glos.; (3)
Arreton Down, Isle of Wight .   .   .   .   .   -335

157.   Segmented Fayence beads, Wilts (by permission of Trustees of

British Museum) .........   336

158. Food Vessels from Argyll and East Lothian   .   .   .   337

159. Gold lunula, Ireland {by permission of Trustees of British Museum)   338

Map I—Europe in Period I ......   348

Map II—Europe in Period II ......   349

Map Ilia—Period III: Megalithic Tombs ....   350

Map III6—Period III: Beakers and Battle-axes .   .   .   351

Map IV—Period IV : Early Bronze Age Cultures and Trade

Routes.................................................  352


When the First Edition was written as a pioneer attempt at a com-
prehensive survey of European prehistory, the archaeological record
was so fragmentary that a pattern could only he extracted by filling
up the gaps with undemonstrable guesses. A spate of excavations,
investigations and publications in the next twenty years rendered
obsolete some of those speculations, enriched the record with a wealth
of often quite unexpected facts, but actually complicated the picture.
Since 1945 still more intense activity has doubled the available data,
but in some points has simplified the scene; several formerly discrete
assemblages now appear as aspects of a very few widespread cultures.
Moreover, the new technique of radio-carbon dating, though still very
much in the experimental stage, offers at least the hope of an inde-
pendent time-scale against which archaeological events in several
regions can be compared chronologically. These advances allow and
demand drastic revision and re-arrangement of my text. At the same
time the fresh data, as much as Mongait’s pertinent criticisms in his
Introduction to the Russian translation, have induced a less dog-
matically “Orientalist” attitude than I adopted in 1925. In particular
the discovery that not all farmers were potters has entailed a complete
revaluation of the ceramic evidence! Radio-carbon dating has indeed
vindicated the Orient’s priority over Europe in farming and metallurgy.
But the speed and originality of Europe’s adaptation of Oriental
traditions can now be better appreciated; it should be clear why, as
well as that, a distinctively European culture had dawned by our
Bronze Age! Two more points should be noted. The radio-carbon dates
here given, many of them unofficial, axe all subject to a margin of error
of several centuries and must be regarded as tentative and provisional!
Secondly, to me the Near East still means what it meant in English
before 1940 and still means in American, Dutch, French and Russian.

For opportunities of studying at first hand the latest finds from
Eastern Europe I wish to thank the Academies of Sciences of Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Roumania, the U.S.S.R. and Yugoslavia,
and to colleagues in those countries as well as in Austria, Belgium, the
British Isles, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Holland, Italy, Poland,
Sweden, Turkey and the U.S.A. I am grateful for information on un-
published finds, for reprints, drawings and photographs. Dr. Isobel
Smith has very kindly read the proofs.

March 1957.   .   V. G. C.


History / Our Early Ancestors by M. C. Burkitt Publication date 1929
« on: March 20, 2018, 12:04:31 AM »

Estate of Solomon Katz
 Mew York

The Macmillan Co.



Cambridge University Press

Bombay, Calcutta and


Macmillan and Co., Ltd.


The Macmillan Co. of
Canada, Ltd.

All rights reserved




M. C. BURKITT, M.A., F.S.A., F.G.S.

University Lecturer at Cambridge in the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology.
Author of Prehistory, Our Forerunners, South Africa's Past in Stone
and Paint, etc.


 First Edition 1926
Reprinted 1929


It is far easier to write a text-book on Palaeolithic than
on Neolithic times. Just as the average geologist will
readily sketch out a clear and comprehensive account
of Palaeozoic times, but may fail to derive any con-
sistent story from Quaternary gravels and other late
deposits, so the prehistorian finds the earlier Palaeolithic
cultures much easier to deal with, than the far more
complicated, though later and more fully preserved,
Neolithic and early Metal Age remains. The difficulties
are of three kinds. Firstly, where so much has been pre-
served for us to study, a far more detailed and wider
knowledge is required, and this is for the most part
only gained by actual work in the field or prolonged
study in many a foreign museum. Published results
are generally to be found scattered through numberless
papers and journals, many of them local publications
not always easy to come across. Secondly, having
acquired a certain number of facts, the writer has to
settle what he is going to leave out, and this is by no
means his lightest task. The following book, as the
title states, is meant to act as an introduction to the
study of the Mesolithic, Neolithic, and earliest Metal
Ages and, as such, details of purely local significance
are naturally out of place. The writer in the course of
lecturing has felt the lack of such a book and, although
he is painfully aware of the shortcomings of the present
volume, he feels that such an introductory text-book
may be welcome to many a student who, with the help
of the bibliographies, will afterwards be able to pro-
ceed further either in the elucidation of the industries


of a given area or in some more general problem.
Curiously enough very few text-books, covering the
periods in question, have been published, but among
serious works are The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. i,
and V. G. Childe’s The Dawn of European Civilisation,
a book that no student of the subject can afford to
leave unstudied, though brilliant as it is with its wealth
of detail, a certain knowledge of typology is unavoidably
assumed. Thirdly there is the difficulty that con-
fronts the writer of such a book as this, namely the
choice of a method of approach. Naturally the area to
be considered has first to be decided upon, the whole
world cannot be covered in a single work. But humanity
is so interrelated and outside influences from far-off
districts have all so played their part in the building
up of European Neolithic and early Metal Age cultures
that it is not easy to know where to draw the line. Again,
should a geographical or a chronological scheme be
followed ? If the former the pre-history of many areas
must be followed separately, and a number of histories
produced, consistent in themselves but not always easy
to interrelate, while the interaction of all the different
cultures makes the second method one of great diffi-
culty. However one may expect in the future that still
more importance will be attached to making and utilising
distribution maps, in which all finds of a given industry
are carefully plotted out on an ordinary large scale map
with the result that the exact limits of a given industry
or culture, and sometimes its movements and inter-
actions, can be determined. This long and painstaking
work is far from completion, even as far as Europe is
concerned, and it will be many years before the work,
which requires detailed knowledge of every find both
ancient and modern, is in any sense finished.


My most sincere thanks are due to many kind friends
for help in the compilation of the present work. Firstly
I want to thank my wife who has not only helped
materially in the text itself, but has also drawn all the
plates that were not directly reproduced from other
works, except the map, for which I am indebted to
my father. Mr V. Gordon Childe has been most kind in
making suggestions and criticisms. Dr Haddon, always
a tower of strength to the would-be author has, as
always, been more than kind and helpful. Miss Askwith
and Mrs Quiggin have relieved me of all the mechanical
troubles connected with its production, not to speak of
the index making. I also desire to thank my aunt,
Miss Parry, who has taken upon herself the correcting
of the proof-sheets. Several colleagues have most kindly
allowed me to copy illustrations from their published
works; to Dr F. Johannsen, Dr Reinerth, Dr Aberg
and Mr F. Buckley I am especially indebted in this
respect. The figures of implements in chapter iv are
mostly drawn from originals in the Cambridge Museum
of Archaeology and Ethnology or in my own collection.
A number of references to a small bibliography appear
at the end of each chapter. Certain works of especial
importance to the student are marked with an asterisk.


Cambridge, 1926






IV.   TYPOLOGY .....   102









X.   ART ...... 212



Reconstructed view of Pile Dwelling and Village Frontispiece      
Plate I.   (1) Azilian harpoons and examples of “painted pebbles.” (2) A typical Asturian pick .   page 11
2.   (1)   Tardenoisean pigmies from France, Belgium, Portugal, and the Mediterranean basin  (2)   Small industries from far-off countries. Australia, Ceylon, India ....   17
3-   Maglemosean tools: harpoon, adze, spatula. Two amber figurines .....   33
4-   Examples from Svaerdborg: pigmy tools, scraper, pick, adze      35
5-   Examples of pottery and tools from the kitchen middens and shell mounds ....   41
6.   (1) Head of Bos prtmigenius. (2) Head of a Urial ram. (3) Head of a Urial ewe. (4) Head of a Mouflon ram. (5) Head of an Argali ram .   59
7-   Sketch map showing physical geography of Cen- tral Asia      81
8.   Neolithic tools      I05
9-   Neolithic tools      107
xo.   Neolithic tools ......   109
XX.   Neolithic and Earliest Metal Age tools . «   in
12.   Neolithic and Earliest Metal Age tools   115
*3-   Neolithic tools ......   1x7
14.   Neolithic tools   121


Plate 15. Examples of decorated Neolithic pottery belong-
ing to the culture of the Eastern Area .   . page

16.   Examples of Neolithic pottery belonging to the

culture of the Western Area

17.   Examples of decorated Neolithic pottery belong-

ing to the culture of the Northern Area .

18.   Examples showing types of “mixed culture”

pottery that developed in Late Neolithic times
in Central Europe...........................

19.   Examples showing types of the Beaker pottery of

the Copper Age..............................

20.   Laibach pottery: Forms and designs drawn from

rough sketches made in the Museum at Loub-
liana (Laibach).............................

21.   Examples of the industry found at Butmir (Bosnia)

2 2. Sketches to show forms of megalithic constructions

23.   English Tardenoisean industries from: W. York-

shire, Pennines, Peacehaven, Hastings, Bam-
burgh. Narrow-blade industry from the Mars-
den district. Broad-blade industry from the
Marsden district .....

24.   East Anglian small industries from: Brandon,

Kenny Hill, Lakenheath, Scunthorpe, Undley,
Weston near Stevenage ....

25.   Decorated pottery of Copper Age from Spain.

Examples of Neolithic naturalistic art

26.   Examples illustrating the principal types of Bronze

Age tools. The evolution of the celt during the
Bronze Age..................................

27.   (1) Rock shelter art at Pefla Tu (Spain). (2) Rock

carving at Clonfinlough (Ireland). (3) Painting
of a wheeled cart from the Spanish Art Group
III. (4) Rock carvings similar to (2) but from
Galicia (Spain) ......















Plate 28. (1) Rock carvings from the Maritime Alps of
Early Metal Age, (2) Rock carvings from
Norway belonging probably to the “Arctic” 225

29.   Carvings on the side wall of a megalithic tomb at

Gavr'inis (Brittany). (2) Carvings on the side
wall of a small tumulus at Sess Kilgrccn (Ire-
land). (3) Conventionalised engravings on the
Folkton chalk drum. (4) Pottery model of a
house of Neolithic Age, now in the Museum
at Brno. (5) Pottery figure from Anau. (6-8)

“Schist ” and “Menhir” idols .   .   *   227

30.   Examples of the paintings of the Spanish Art

Group III .   229

The frontispiece is reproduced from The New Stone Age in Northern
Europe, by permission of Messrs Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York,
and G. Bell Sc Sons, Ltd., London.


Th e history of mankind—like the journals or pro-
ceedings of many learned societies—has been
divided into several volumes, each of which comprises
a number of separate parts. The third, and still un-
finished, volume of mankind’s history is concerned with
the so-called Iron Age which begins when this metal
came into common use for tool-making and other
general purposes. The second volume contains the
history of an earlier epoch before the smelting of iron
ores had been properly discovered, and when copper
and its alloy with tin—bronze—were the only metals
usually employed for tool-making, although gold, silver
and lead occur and were sometimes worked up into
objects of ornament, etc. The history and conditions
of human existence in this, the earlier, age of metal, is
one of surpassing interest and already very complex.
Whether we turn our eyes to the wonderful palaces and
towns of Bronze Age Crete, Greece, and the Aegean
generally, with their wealth of gold objects and artistic-
ally painted pots, faience figures, wall paintings, etc.,
or to the important trade routes that first sprang up
at this time across northern Europe, enabling the
highly prized Baltic amber to be conveyed up the valleys
and over the passes to the more settled ana developed
Mediterranean lands, we cannot fail to be astonished
at the modernity of these early cultures. Of course
nature had not yet been harnessed to the service of
man to the same extent as she is to-day, but after all, on
analysis, this harnessing of nature can, to a very large
extent, be expressed in the word transport. To-day
we transport ourselves and our goods in trains ana


steamships, and our thoughts and words by telegraphs,
telephones and wireless. Although Bronze Age Crete
had no broadcasting, the germs of much of our modern
civilisation can be already discerned. Beyond the Alps,
in spite of the fact that trade routes were springing up,
and an interchange of commerce and culture with the
south was growing, the cultures of the northern lands
lagged behind those of the Mediterranean basin, and
there is nothing comparable to the brilliance of the
south. Wealth there was in abundance in the shape of
gold, as can be seen to-day by anyone who delves into
the vaults of the National Museum at Budapest, but
the art, decoration and workmanship remain barbaric,
and there is nothing corresponding to the delicacy and
skilful design of such objects as the cups from Vaphio
in Laconia with their embossed scenes of the wild
ox being caught in a net and then, tamed, being led
by a foot rope.

The history of mankind that Volume i lays before
us is very different. Here we find no knowledge of
metals manifested; all tools were made of wood, bone,
or stone; moreover, during the earlier and far longer
portion of this period (corresponding in our “pro-
ceedings” analogy to Parts i, a, 3, 4 and 5, out of a
total of 6), there was no knowledge of agriculture or
pottery, and animals had not yet been domesticated.
Mankind—in Europe and the Mediterranean basin,
the area mainly under review in this little book—was
still in the hunting stage; and, in spite of the existence
of a wonderful art practised for magic purposes by
the folk of the Later Old Stone Age—an art that,
given the circumstances, we should have a difficulty
in rivalling to-day—it must be admitted that during
most of the time included in Volume 1 humanity was


in a very different and more primitive state of culture
than exists in Europe to-day, and that the germs of our
modern civilisation are not much in evidence.

At this point it will be convenient to give a table
showing in a simplified manner the various sub-
divisions of the history of mankind.

Volume III, part 3 = Steel Age.

part 2 = Newer Iron Age or La Tene Culture,
part 1 = Older Iron Age or Hallstatt Culture.
Volume II, part 3 = Later Bronze Age.

part 2 = Earlier Bronze Age.
part 1 = Copper Age (Eneolithic or Chalcolithic

Volume I, part 6 = Neolithic Period.

part 5 = Mesolithic Period,
part 4 = Upper Palaeolithic Period,
part 3 = Middle Palaeolithic Period,
part 2 = Lower Palaeolithic Period,
part 1 = Eolithic Period.

Our concern in this book is with Volume 1, parts 5
and 6, and Volume n, part 1, but naturally a word or
two must be said of the cultures just preceding and
just following in order that our particular period may
be satisfactorily placed in its proper sequence and thus
be duly realised in relation to both its background and

The older prehistorians did not admit the Mesolithic
Period as a separate entity. For them there was the
Palaeolithic, grouped as in our table, but including
the earlier part of what we have classed as Mesolithic,
while the later part of this same period was grouped
as Early Neolithic. The criteria employed to determine
whether a given industry on the border line should be
classed as Palaeolithic or Neolithic were: (1) the pre-
sence or absence of pottery, (2) the presence or absence of


evidencefor domesticanimalsandagriculturc, (3) whether
polishing and grinding were employed in the making
of tools, or merely chipping. It is now recognised, how-
ever, that these criteria alone lead to anomalies. The
two contemporary folk who have left us heaps of their
kitchen refuse, the one on the shores of the Baltic and
the other in North Spain, and who, in spite of many
differences, are in many ways very similar in culture,
would, under the old scheme, have to be completely
separated, the former being classed as Early Neolithic,
the latter as Late Palaeolithic. At the end of Upper
Palaeolithic times a rapid change of temperature took
place in Western Europe and the climate ameliorated,
and with this change of climate the Palaeolithic history
of mankind closed. On the other hand we cannot class
everything after this change as Neolithic, for during a
long period mankind was living a very different life
from that of the true New Stone Age. It is therefore
convenient to create this Mesolithic stage to include all
those industries and cultures yet but dimly known that
start at the end of Magdalenian times on the change
of climate and finish with the appearance in quantity,
in western and northern Europe, of the polished stone
celts and the megalithic tombs. Although the Old
Stone Age hunter was no doubt largely exterminated
or, at any rate, became extinct with the change of
climate and conditions, a remnant probably survived
throughout Mesolithic times and even influenced the
higher culture of the New Stone Age invader before
becoming finally absorbed into the new civilisation.
How great an influence this Old Stone Age element
had in moulding the history of the newer folk it is
difficult to say with any degree of certainty. There have
been some students of the subject, however, who see


















The Leading Positions of this Work.....................9


The Signs of the Times. — The Coming Revolution. — Reason

WILL SOON TRIUMPH.................................11


Apology and Explanation. — Jehovah not our God. — Relation-
ship of the Old and New Testaments..............17


Why this Work was written. — The Moral Truths of the
Bible. — Why resort to Ridicule. — The Principal Design
of this Work. — Don’t read Pernicious Books. — Two Thou-
sand Bible Errors exposed. — All Bibles Useful in their .

Place........................................... 20



Beauties and Benefits of Bibles. —A Higher Plane of Devel-
opment has been Attained. — Bible Writers Honest.—
General Claims of Bibles.............................28



The Hindoo Bibles. — The Yedas.—The Code of Menu. — Ram-


Hindoo and Jewish Religions.—Antiquity of India .   .   32


The Egyptian Bible, “The Hermas.” —Analogies of the Egyp-
tian and Jewish Religions. — Antiquity of Egypt





The Persian Bibles. — The Zenda A vesta. — The Sadder. — Anal-
ogies of the Persian and Jewish Religions. — Antiquity of


The Chinese Bibles.—Ta-Heo (Great Learning). — The Chun
Yung ; or, Doctrine of the Mean. — The Book of Mang, or
Mencius. — Shoo King; or, “Book of History.”— Shee
King; or, “Book of Poetry.” — Chun Tsen, “Spring and
Summer.” — Tao-te King ; or, Doctrine of Reason. — Analo-
gies of the Chinese and Jewish Religions. — Antiquity of


Seven other Oriental Bibles. — The Soffees’ Bible: The “Mus-
navi.” — The Parsees’ Bible: The “Bour Desch.” — The
Tamalese Bible: The “ Kaliwakam.” — The Scandinavian
Bible: The “Saga;” or, Divine Wisdom.—The Kalmucs’
Bible : The “ Kalio Cham.” —The Athenians’ Bible : “ The
Testament.” — The Cabalists’ Bible: The “ Yohar ; ” or,
Book of Light......................................55


The Mahomedan’s Bible : TnE “Koran.” — The Mormons’ Bible :
“The Book of Mormon.” — Revelations of Joseph Smith.

— The Shakers’ Bible: “The Divine Roll” ....   57


TnE Jews’ Bible : TnE Old Testament and TnE Mishna .   .   61


TnE Christians’ Bible : Its Character................62


General Analogies of Bibles. — Superior Features of TnE

Heathen Bibles..................................65


The Infidels’ Bible..................................68





A Hundred and Twenty-three Errors in the Jewish Cosmogony.

— The Scientists’ Story of Creation.............73


Numerous Absurdities in the Story of the Deluge .   . v„^8tT



The Ten Commandments, Moral Defects of ...   96


Ten Foolish Bible Stories : A Talking Serpent and a Talking
Ass. — The Story of Cain. — The Ark of the Covenant.—
Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. — Daniel and Nebuchad-
nezzar. — Sodom and Gomorrah. — The Tower of Babel. —
Stopping the Sun and Moon. — Story of Samson. — Story

of Jonah ......................................100


Bible Prophecies not Fulfilled......................121


Bible Miracles, Erroneous Belief in................124


Bible Errors in Facts and Figures...................128


Bible Contradictions (232).......................... 134


Obscene Language of the Bible (200 cases)...........145


Circumcision a Heathenish Custom. — Fasting and Feasting in

Various Nations................................149


Holy Mountains, Lands, Cities, and Rivers..........151



CHAPTER   XXVI.   page

Jehovah, Character of............................153


The Jews, Character of...........................157


Moses, Character of..............................160


The Patriarchs, Abraham,   Isaac, and   Jacob, Character of . 166


David: His Numerous Cremes. — Solomon, Character of. — Lot

and his Daughters............................173


The Prophets : Their Moral Defects. — Special Notice of Eli-
jah and Elisha...............................177


Idolatry: Its Nature, Harmlessness, and Origin.—All Chris-
tians either Atheists or Idolaters...........187



Divine Revelation Impossible and Unnecessary .... 212


Prdieval Innocency of Man not True...............219


Original Sin and Fall of Man not True..............222


Moral Depravity of Man a Delusion................224


Free Agency and Moral Accountability Erroneous .   .   .227


Repentance : The Doctrine Erroneous




Forgiveness fob Sin an Erroneous Doctrine


An Angby God, Evils of the Belief in


Atonement fob Sin an Immobal Doctbine .


Special Pbovidences an Ebboneous Doctbine


Faith and Belief: Bible Ebbobs bespecting


A Pebsonal God Impossible ....


. 236
. 239
. 242
. 246
, 250

Note.—In the twelve preceding chapters it is shown that the cardinal doctrines of
Christianity are all wrong.


Evil, Natural and Moral, explained


A Rational Yiew of Sin and its Consequences

The Bible sanctions every Species of Crime .


The Immoral Influence of the Bible






The Bible at War with Eighteen Sciences



The Bible as a Moral Necessity .



Send no more Bibles to the Heathen



What shall We do to be Saved?



The Three Christian Plans of Salvation




The True Religion defined................................352


‘ All Scripture given by Inspiration of God ”   .   .   .   . 356


Infidelity in Oriental Nations : India, Rome, Greece, Egypt,

China, Persia, and Arabia...........................368


Sects, Schisms, and Skeptics in Christian Countries .   .   . 378


Modern Christianity one-half Infidelity..................384


The Christians* God, Character of........................399


The One Hundred and Fifty Errors of Jesus Christ .   .   .   401


Character and Erroneous Doctrines of the Apostles   .   .   407


Erroneous Doctrines and Moral Defects of Paul and Peter . 408

Idolatrous Veneration for Bibles: Its Evils .... 420

Spiritual or Implied Sense of Bibles : Its Objects .   .   .   425


Wiiat shall we substitute for the Bible?................432


Religious Reconstruction ; or, the Moral Necessity for a

Religious Reform...................................433



We maintain, 1st, That man’s mental faculties are
susceptible of a threefold division and classification, as
follows: First, the intellectual department; second, the
moral and religious department; third, the animal depart-
ment (which includes also the social).

2d, That all Bibles and religions are an outgrowth
from some or all of these faculties, and hence of natural

3d, That all Bibles and religions which originated prior
to the dawn of civilization in the country which gave them
birth (i.e., prior to the reign of moral and physical science)
are an emanation from the combined action and co-opera-
tion of man’s moral, religious, and animal feelings and pro-

4th, That the Christian Bible contains (as shown in this
work) several thousand errors, — moral, religious, histori-
cal, and scientific.

5th, That this fact is easily accounted for by observing
that it originated at a period when the moral and religious
feelings of the nation which produced it co-operated with
the animal propensities instead of an enlightened intellect.

6th, That, although such a Bible and religion may have
been adapted to the minds which originated them, the
higher class of minds of the present age demands a religion


which shall call into exercise the intellect, instead of the
animal propensities.

7th, That, as all the Bibles and religions of the past are
more of an emanation from the animal propensities than
the intellect, they are consequently not suited to this age,
and are for this reason being rapidly abandoned.

8th, That true religion consists in the true exercise of
the moral and religious faculties.

9th, As the Christian Bible is shown in this work to
inculcate bad morals, and to sanction, apparently, every
species of crime prevalent in society in the age in which it
was written, the language of remonstrance is frequently
employed against placing such a book in the hands of the
heathen, or the children of Christian countries; and more
especially against making “ the Bible the fountain of our
laws and the supreme rule of our conduct,” and acknowl-
edging allegiance to its God in the Constitution of the
United States, as recommended by the American Christian
Alliance. Such measures, this work shows by a thousand
facts, would be a deplorable check to the moral and in-
tellectual progress of the world.

10th, If any clergyman or Christian professor shall take
any exceptions to any position laid down in this work,
the author will discuss the matter with him in a friendly
manner in the papers, or through the post-office, or before
a public audience.

Kersey Graves.

Richmond, Indiana.



We live in the most important age in the history of the world.
No age preceding it was marked with such signal events. No
other era in the history of civilization has been characterized by
such agitation of human thought; such a universal tendency
to investigation ; such a general awakening upon all important
subjects of human inquiry; such a determination to grow in
knowledge, and cultivate the immortal intellect, and mount to
higher plains of development. The world of mind is in com-
motion. All civilized nations are agitated from center to cir-
cumference with the great questions of the age. And what
does all this prove ? Why, that man is a progressive being;
that the tendency of the human mind is onward and upward;
and that it will not always consent to be bound down in igno-
rance and superstition. And, thanks to the genius of the
age, it is the prophecy of the glorious reformation and regene-
ration of society, — an index of a happier era in the history of
the human race. Old institutions are crumbling, and tumbling
to the ground. The iron bands of creeds and dogmas, with
which the people have been, so long bound down, are bursting
asunder, and permitting them to walk upright, and do their own
thinking. In every department of science, in every arena of
human thought and every theater of human action, we see a
progressive spirit, we behold a disposition to lay aside the tra-


ditions and superstitions of the past, and grasp the living facts
of the age. We everywhere see a disposition to abandon the
defective institutions, political and religious, which were gotten
up in the childhood of human experience, and supplant them
with those better adapted to the wants of the age. In a word,
there is everywhere manifested a disposition and determination
to unshackle the human bod}7, and set free the human mind, and
place it with its living aspirations on the road to the temple of
Truth. An evidence of the truth of these statements the reader
can gather by casting his eyes abroad, or by reading the peri-
odicals of the day. At this very time nearly all the orthodox
churches are in a state of commotion. The growing light and
intelligence of the age, penetrating their dark creeds and dog-
mas, are producing a sort of moral effervescence. The question
of “hell” is now the agitating theme of the churches. Pos-
terity will ridicule us, and class us with the unenlightened
heathen, for discussing a question so far behind the times, and
one so childish and so absurd in this intelligent and enlightened
age. To condescend to discuss such a question now must be
hell enough for scientific and intelligent minds. And other
important religious events mark the age. When the Roman-
Catholic Church, through its Ecumenical Council, dragged the
Pope from his lofty throne of usurped power, and robbed him
of his attribute of infallibility, it proclaimed the downfall of the
Pope and the deatli^knell of the Church. Already thousands
of his subjects refuse longer to bow down and kiss the big toe
of his sacred majesty. His scepter has departed, his spiritual
power is gone, his temporal power is waning. And the same
spirit of agitation is operating as a leaven in the Protestant
churches also. All the orthodox churches arc declining and
growing weaker by their members falling off. The Methodist
Church has recently lost more than two hundred of its preachers ;
and the Baptist Church, according to the statement of a recent
number of u The Christian Era,” has lost twenty-two thousand
of its members within a period of five years. The agitation in
the churches is driving thousands from their ranks, while many
who remain are becoming more liberal-minded. The orthodox
Quaker Church has, in many localities, “ run clear off the track.”



Sixteen Crucified Saviors


Christianity before Christ













No. 9 Montgomery Peace.

 Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 187§>

111 the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Stereotyped at the

Boston Stereotype Foundry, 19 Spring Lane,

G ^








_ Rival Claims of the Saviors. .




Messianic Prophecies.





Prophecies by the Figure of a Serpent. •   •


Miraculous and Immaculate Conception of the Gods.


Virgin Mothers and Virgin-born Gods. •   •


Stars point out the Time and the Saviors’ Birth-place.


Angels, Shepherds, and Magi visit the Infant Saviors.




The Twenty-fifth of December the Birthday of the Gods.


Titles of the Saviors...............

o   8

















The Saviors op Royal Descent, but Humble Birth. •   •   70


Christ’s Genealogy................................72


The World’s Saviors saved from Destruction in Infancy. 76


The Saviors exhibit Early Proofs of   Divinity. •   •   •   83


The Saviors’ Kingdoms not of this World...........86


The Saviors are real Personages.   • •   •   •   •   88


Sixteen Saviors Crucified..............................92


The Aphanasia, or Darkness, at the Crucifixion. •   . 120


Descent of the Saviors into Hell.   • •   •   •   •   126


Resurrection of the Saviors...........................128


Reappearance and Ascension of the   Saviors.   •   •   .   135


The Atonements its Oriental or Heathen Origin. .   . 138


The Holy Ghost of Oriental Origin.....................146


The Divine “Word” of Oriental Origin............


The Trinity very anciently a current Heathen Doctrine.


Absolution, or the Confession of Sins, of Heathen Origin.


Origin of Baptism by Water, Fire, Blood, and the Holy


The Sacrament or Eucharist of Heathen Origin. •


Anointing with Oil of Oriental Origin...........


How Men, including Jesus Christ, came to be worshiped
as Gods.........................................


Sacred Cycles explaining the Advent of the Gods, the
Master-key to the Divinity of Jesus Christ. •


Christianity derived from Heathen and Oriental Systems.


Three Hundred and Forty-six striking Analogies between
Christ and Chrishna.............................


Apollonius, Osiris, and Magus as Gods. .   .













26 3

The Three Pillars of the Christian Faith — Miracles,
Prophecies, and Precepts..................................




Logical or Common-sense View op the Doctrine op Divine

Incarnation............................•   •   •   808


Philosophical Absurdities op the Doctrine op the Divine

Incarnation.............................• 315


Physiological Absurdities op the Doctrine op the Divine

Incarnation..............•   •   •   •   • 818


A Historical View op the Divinity op Jesus Christ. •   . 822


The Scriptural View op Christ’s Divinity. •   •   •   •   327


A Metonymic View op the Divinity of Jesus Christ. • 339


The Precepts and Practical Life op Jesus Christ. •   • 342


Christ as a Spiritual Medium....................  357


Conversion, Repentance, and “Getting Religion” op Hea-
then Origin..................................  359


The Moral Lessons op Religious History. •   .   .   •   369


Conclusion and Review.............................372



Inversely to the remoteness of time has been man’s
ascent toward the temple of knowledge. Truth has made
its ingress into the human mind in the ratio by which
man has attained the capacity to receive and appreciate
it. Hence, as we tread back the meandering pathway of
human history, every step in the receding process brings
us to a lower plane of intelligence and a state of mind
more thoroughly encrusted with ignorance and supersti-
tion. It is, therefore, no source of surprise to learn, when
we take a survey of the world two or three thousand years
in the past, that every religious writer of that era com-
mitted errors on every subject which employed his pen,
involving a scientific principle. Hence the bible, or
sacred book, to which he was a contributor, is now found
to bear the marks of human imperfection. For the temple
of knowledge was but partially reared, and its chambers
but dimly lighted up. The intellectual brain was in a dark,
feeble, and dormant condition. Hence the moral and reli-
gious feelings were drifted about without a pilot on the
turbulent waves of superstition, and finally stranded on
the shoals of bigotry. The Christian bible, like other
bibles, having been written in an age when science was
but budding into life, and philosophy had attained but a



feeble growth, should be expected to teach many things
incompatible with the principles of modern science. And
accordingly it is found to contain, like other bibles, numer-
ous statements so obviously at war with present established
scientific truths that almost any school-boy, at the present
day, can demonstrate their falsity. Let the unbiased
reader examine and compare the oriental and Christian
bibles together, and he will note the following facts,
viz.: —

1.   That the cardinal religious conceptions of all bibles
are essentially the same — all running in parable grooves.

2.   That every chapter of every bible is but a transcript
of the mental chart of the writer.

3.   That no bible, pagan or Christian, contains anything
surpassing the natural, mental, and moral capacity of the
writer to originate. And hence no divine aid or inspira-
tion was necessary for its production.

4.   That the moral and religious teachings of no bible
reach a higher altitude than the intelligence and mental de-
velopment of the age and country which produced it.

5.   That the Christian bible, in some respects, is superior
to some of the other bibles, but only to the extent to which
the age in which it was written was superior in intelli-
gence and natural mental capacity to the era in which the
older bibles were penned; and that this superiority con-
sists not in its more exalted religious conceptions, but only
in the fact that, being of more modern origin, the progress
of mind had worn away some of the legendary rubbish of
the past. Being written in a later and more enlightened
age, it is consequently a little less encrusted with mytho-
logical tradition and oriental imagery. Though not free


from these elements, it possesses them in less degree. And
by comparing Christ’s history with those of the oriental
Gods, it will be found, —

1.   That he taught no new doctrine or moral precept.

2.   That he inculcated the same religion and morality,
which he elaborated, as other moral teachers, to great

3.   That Christ differs so little in his character, preach-
ing, and practical life from some of the oriental Gods, that
no person whose mind is not deplorably warped and biased
by early training can call one divine while he considers the
other human.

4.   That if Christ was a God, then all were Gods.


Richmond, Indiana, 1875.



As but a few months have elapsed since the first edition of
this work was published, and a second edition is called for, the
author embraces the opportunity to lay before the reader a
few thoughts appertaining to the work. He desires, in the
first place, to say the work has been carefully reviewed and
corrected, and some additions made, embracing two chapters
from “the Bible of Bibles,” and some explanatory notes. Ow-
ing to the indisposition of the author at the time the work
went to press, the manuscripts were sent away in a somewhat
defective condition; so that the errors made by the copyist)
who transcribed most of them for the press, were not cor-
rected. And some errors also crept into the work through
the hands of the type-setters. These errors were so numer-
ous, they may have had the effect to create in some critical


minds an unfavorable impression with respect to the charactef
of the work. But the author has carefully examined the work
since it came from the press, and is now able to place before
the reader a greatly improved edition.

The author also desires to say here, that the many flatter-
ing letters he has received from various parts of the country,
from those who have supplied themselves with the work,
excites in his mind the hope it will ultimately effect something
towards achieving the important end sought to be attained by
its publication — the banishment of that wide-spread delusion
comprehended in the belief in an incarnate, virgin-born God,
called Jesus Christ, and the infallibility of his teachings, with
the numerous evils growing legitimately out of this belief—
among the most important of which is, its cramping effect
upon the mind of the possessor, which interdicts its growth,
and thus constitutes a serious obstacle to the progress both
of the individual and of society. And such has been the
blinding effect of this delusion upon all who have fallen vic-
tims to its influence, that the numerous errors and evils of our
popular system of religious faith, which constitute its legiti-
mate fruits, have passed from age to age, unnoticed by all
except scientific and progressive minds, who are constantly
bringing these errors and evils to light. This state of things
has been a source of sorrow and regret to every philanthropist
desiring the welfare of the race. And if this wrork shall
achieve anything towards arresting this great evil, the author
will feel that he is amply compensated for the years of toil
and mental labor spent in its preparation.

Note. — As the different works consulted hare assigned different dates
for the same event, the author has, in one or two cases, followed their
example, accepting them as authority; as in the date of the birth and
death of the Gods of Mexico. The reader will also notice that the name
of the same God is found in different countries. Example — Adonis and
Bacchus are found amongst the Gods of both Greece and Egypt.

* The World’s Sixteen Crucified Saviors.” What an
imposing title for a book ! What startling developments of
religious history it implies ! Is it founded on fact or on
fiction ? If it has a basis of truth, where was such an
extraordinary mine of sacred lore discovered? Where
were such startling facts obtained as the title of the work
suggests. These queries will doubtless arise as soliloquies
in the minds of many readers on glancing at the title-page.
And the author is disposed to gratify this natural and most
probable, in some cases, excited curiosity by a brief expla-
nation. In doing this, he deems it only necessary to state
that many of the most important facts collated in this work
were derived from Sir Godfrey Higgins’ Anacalypsis, a
work as valuable as it is rare — a work comprising the
result of twenty years’ labor, devoted to the investigation
of religious history. And although embodying many im-
portant historical facts which should have commanded for
it a world-wide circulation, but a few copies of this invalu-
able treasury of religious knowledge have ever found their
way into this country. One of these copies the author of
this work obtained, at no inconsiderable expense, long
enough to glean from its pages such facts as he presumed
would be most interesting and instructive to the general
reader, some of which will be found in nearly every
chapter of this volume. With the facts and materials
derived from this source, and 200 other unimpeachable
historical records, the present work might have been
swelled to fourfold its present size without exhausting



tho author’s ample store of materials and would have
possessed such unwieldy dimensions but for a strict con-
formity to the most rigid rules of eclecticism and con-
densation. A portion of the excluded materials, however,
will be found in another volume now nearly ready for the
press. In the author’s two works just noticed, the claims
of Christianity are presented and contested upon an en-
tirely new ground — that of their historical verity, differing
in this respect from any work heretofore published, ex-
cepting a few brief essays which cover a portion of the
ground only. Encouraged by the extensive demand for
his former work, “ The Biography of Satan,” which has
passed through seven editions, the author cherishes the
hope that the present work will meet with a circulation
commensurate with the importance of the many invaluable
facts which it contains. For he possesses the sad convic-
tion that the many religious errors and evils which it is
the object of this work to expose, operate very seriously
to retard the moral and intellectual growth and prosperity
of all Christian countries. They have the effect to injure
mentally, morally, and religiously the great body of Chris-
tian professors.

JK3T Dr. Prince, of Long Island (now deceased), wrote
to the author, respecting the thirty-fifth chapter of this
work, entitled “The Logical View of the Incarnation,”
after he had seen it in the columns of a newspaper, “ It is
a masterly piece of logic, and will startle, if it does not
revolutionize, the orthodox world. And the chapters com-
prising ( The Philosophical View ’ and 1 The Physiological
View,’ were afterward pronounced specimens of profound
and unanswerable logical reasoning,” We thus call the
reader’s attention to these chapters in advance, in order
to induce that thorough attention to their facts and argu-
ments which will result in banishing from his mind the last
vestiges of a belief (if he entertain any) in the doctrine of
the divine incarnation.

Satan / The biography of Satan by Graves, Kersey, 1813-1883 -1924
« on: March 11, 2018, 08:46:42 PM »
The biography of Satan [microform] :
by Graves, Kersey, 1813-1883

Publication date 1924

 or, A historical exposition of the devil and his fiery dominions : disclosing the oriental origin of the belief in a devil and future endless punishment; also, an explanation of the pagan origin of the scriptural terms, bottomless pit, lake of fire and brimstone, chains of darkness, casting out devils, worm that never dieth, etc.


Author of “ Illustrated Sltkyof Evolution,” “ Fundament^ of
Frcethought,” Etc.






Thought has a history. The intellectual life of
the present is the heritage of the beliefs and
doubts, the hopes and fears, of the past. We
think over again the thoughts of our fathers, with
such variations only as are due to broader cul-
ture. And this broader culture is the product of
intellectual variations.

Thought varies in the direction of growth.
But the change of thought is, for the most part,
a slow process. Beliefs are tenacious, and no
beliefs are more tenacious than religious beliefs.

This is because religion has to do with gods
and devils; because it presumes to tell man of his
place in and relation to the world and the whence
and whither of his being; because it teaches the
necessity of holding certain beliefs regarding
these things, and because it appeals fundament-
ally to man’s emotions—to his hope for happiness
and fear of pain in another world.

These*features of religious belief give relig-
ion a universal interest. All men are interested
in religion. They are interested in it because it
has so largely dominated the life of humanity;
because for countless ages mankind lived and



thought and suffered almost wholly within the
confines of religious sanctions; because every step
the race has token in the direction of intellectual
progress has been taken in defiance of religious
authority; because the whole range of the scien-
tific gulture of our time regarding man and the
universe is a challenge to, and is challenged by,
the religious notions that have come down to us
from the distant past.

Accordingly, the Christian and the Deist, the
Theosophist and the Spiritualist, the Agnostic
and the Atheist, are equally interested, though
from different points of view, in the story of
humanity’s religious beliefs—the history of the
world’s religious thought.

Without a knowledge of man’s past, his pres-
ent cannot be understood. Yesterday’s beliefs
are keys to the doors of to-day’s thoughts. From
what yesterday’s religion was, the religion of to-
day has become, and on the foundations we lay
down, whethenflimsy or secure, the superstructure
of tomorrow’s thought will rise to challenge the
winds of change and to be tested by the stressful
storms of science.

At the bottom of the religion of the Christian
world has even been and is, the belief in an eternal
fiery hell, presided over by a devil, the prince of
fiends. The church has ever taught and still
teaches that the faithful, the devout—at best but


a mere few—will be chosen to share the eternal
glory of God’s presence in heaven, and that the
countless billions of unregenerate and unredeem-
ed will be tortured forever in the flames of hell,
under the everlasting surveillance of the Devil’s
malicious leer.

That atrocious doctrine—the doctrine of eter-
nal punishment for unbelievers—has been, in
every age, the mainspring, the driving force of
Christianity. Armed with that belief, the church
launched herself upon the Roman Empire, de-
stroyed the pagan religions, extinguished pagan
culture, overthrew classical civilization, and
ushered the world into the noisome gulf of the
Dark Ages.

Fired with that belief, the church filled! the
world with religious hate, with fanaticism, with
intolerance of science and reason. Urged to des-
peration by that belief, the church established the
Inquisition; filled the Christian world with spies
and informers; and for a long succession of gen-
erations, imprisoned and stretched on racks and
burnt alive, the noblest, the most progressive
men and women of our race, because they had
brains enough to think and courage enough to
express their thought.

To satisfy that infamous belief, Hypatia and
Huss, Bruno and Vanini, Servetus and Ferrer,
with innumerable martyrs filling the way between


the Greek teacher in the fifth century and the
Spanish educator in our own day, sealed their
convictions with their blood and gave their ashes
to the winds.

The belief in eternal punishment gave the
world a thousand religious wars. It put a ban
on investigation. It gagged honest thought. It
made ignorance universal and progress impos-
sible. It put the world beneath the feet of priests.
For more than fifteen hundred years, the insane
notion that a hell of flames awaits the souls of
unbelievers in another world did more than any
other single thing to transform this world into
a kind of hell.

Thundered from millions of pulpits, over and
over again, during all the centuries of Christian-
ity, that heartless belief filled the lives of men
and women and children with an awful fear—
a fear frequently amounting to terror—a wither-
ing fear that only recently began to pass away.

Think, for example, of these terrible words,
from the lips of so otherwise good a man as the
Rev. Charles H. Spurgeon, the eminent Baptist
preacher of the London Metropolitan Tabernacle,
only a generation ago:

“Only conceive the poor wretch in flames I
See how his tongue hangs between his blistered
Kps! How it excoriates and bums the roof of
his mouth, as though it were a firebrand! Be-


hold him crying for a drop of water! I will not
picture the scene. Suffice it for me to say that
the hell of hells will be to thee, dear sinner, the
thought that it is to be forever. Thou shalt look
up there on the throne of God, and on it thou
shalt see written: ‘Forever.’ ”

Then, dropping into verse, the eloquent
preacher continues:

“Forever is written on their racks,

Forever on their chains,

Forever bumeth in the fire;

Forever ever reigns.”

Against such frightful teachings reason has
had to fight; science has had to struggle, and the
spirit of humanity has made way but slowly. The
emancipation of the human mind is, as yet, far
from complete. The old thraldom still maintains
an ominous dominion. The chains of fear still
bind the beliefs of scores of millions. Wherever
priests and preachers are powerful, wherever the
light of modern knowledge has not yet penetrated
the dark recesses of superstition, the belief in
hell retains its hold upon the people. The whole
world of Christian orthodoxy still respects the
Devil with its belief and still honors him with the
tribute of its fear. And the ignorance and des-
potism, the confusion and war, that still darken
the face of civilization are part of the price hu-
manity still pays for being deceived by a false

• »*


religious doctrine that has, in every Christian
age, diverted man’s mind from the cultivation of
those concerns upon which rests his welfare in
this world.

But some gains have been made. The belief
in the Devil and hell has vanished from the
whole intellectual world, and as education ad-
vances, the unbelievers in these terrible sup-
erstitions will multiply by the millions. The
mission of education, of modem science and
historical criticism, is to win the world for en-
lightenment, and that goal will be reached event-
ually, in spite of the puerile preaching of priests
and the fulminations of the Fundamentalists.

But while the Devil and his fiery dominions
are disappearing from the realm of man’s be-
liefs, it must be borne in mind that belief in His
Satanic Majesty and in a place of endless torment
for the major portion of mankind are vital to
Christianity. The reality of Satan is as plainly
taught in the New Testament as is the reality of
Christ. It was Satan who tempted the Son of
God at the close of his forty days’ fast. It was
Satan who carried the younger God to the pin-
nacle of the Temple and thence to the top of a
mountain, and offered him the kingdoms of the
world,, in exchange for worship.

Again and again, according to the New Test-
ament, Christ cast devils out of human beings.

Moreover, Christ threatened men with eternal
punishment in hell (Matthew xxv: 41, 46).

If these representations are not true; if the
Devil is only a myth and hell but a figure of
speech, the authority of the New Testament falls
to the ground. With the Devil and hell gone, sal-
vation loses its meaning; the savior is left without
an office; the atonement remains unperformed;
the wrath of God resolves itself into a priestly
fiction—Christianity is seen to be not a divine
revelation, but a gross superstition that has, for
nearly two thousand years, deceived, betrayed
and martyred mankind.

The author of this book has performed for his,
fellowmen the signal service of pointing out to
them the fact that the Christian doctrine of a
Devil and a hell were utterly unknown to the
ancient Jews, and are nowhere taught in the Old
Testament. He shows that these doctrines were
derived from the mythologies of the heathen
nations that surrounded the Jewish people. He
shows that these doctrines were derived from the
mythologies of the heathen nations that sur-
rounded the Jewish people. He shows that the
God of the Old Testament and the Devil of the
New Testament—that is to say, “Our Father
which art in heaven”—the God whom Christians
worship—and the Lord of Hell—the God whom
Christians fear—were “originally twin brothers

known by the same titles,” and that this God and
this Devil were Chaldean sun-gods.

He shows further that the Christian notions
of the “Kingdom of Heaven,” of the “bottom-
less pit,” of a “lake of fire and brimstone,” and
other such ideas were borrowed from Babylonian
and Persian sources.

In other words, he shows that the Christian
ideas as to the future worlds of bliss and torment
were not made known to man by Divine revela-
tion, hut, rather, were borrowed by the founders
of Christianity from the rich treasure house of
pagan mythology.

Thought has a history. Christianity belongs
to the natural history of thought. Its origins are
found in the development and migration of
mythology. And humanity is outgrowing it to-
day because thought, illumined with knowledge,
is moving to a higher plain—to the altitude of
science and Rationalism.

“The Biography of Satan” is an instrument
in this forward movement because it is an in-
forming, an emancipating book, and therefore
Kersey Graves, its author, was a benefactor of

Minneapolis, Minn.,

July 30. 1924.

In presenting the present edition of this work
to the public the author deems it necessary only
to add in the preface that it has been thoroughly
revised and corrected, and that the numerous re-
sponses from those who availed themselves of a
copy of the previous edition of the book, leaves
the author no reason to doubt that the motive
which actuated him in the publication of it will be
fully realized. That motive was to expose and
arrest the progress of the most terror-inciting su-
perstition that ever nestled in the bosom of the ig-
norant, or that ever prostrated the energies of the
human mind, and reduced its possessor to the
condition of an abject, groveling and trembling

It is common in the prefatory exegesis of a
work to explain the motives which lead to its au-
thorship or compilation. But as the motives
which prompted this work are already partially
disclosed in the initiatory chapter, headed “Ad-
dress to the Reader,” and the succeeding chapter
which sets forth some of the practical evils which
spring legitimately from the doctrine of future or
post mortem punishment, we will only add to the
explanation thus furnished, so far, as to state:



1.   That notwithstanding many ages have
rolled away since the after-death penalty was first
originated and promulgated to the world, yet no
work designed to furnish to the general reader a
full, and at the same time, brief exposition of the
origin and design of this mischievous doctrine,
with all its various and multifarious terms,
dogmas, and childish traditions, has ever before
been presented to the public since an extensive
inquiry has been awakened on the subject.

2.   We deem it a matter of the greatest mo-
ment, that some one should make the effort to
arrest the almost boundless tide of terror and
misery, of which the practical dissemination of the
doctrine of endless damnation has ever been and
still is, a truly prolific source. For no person who
has not scrutinizingly investigated the matter, can
form any just or proximate conception of the ex-
tent to which the Heathen and Christian worlds
have been demoralized and flooded with misery
and unhappiness, by the propagation of this doc-
trine. These facts, wedded to the hope of check-
ing this widespread river—this shoreless current
of mischief, constitute our principal reason for
publishing this work.

3.   The single and serious fact, that the super-
stitious fear of after-death punishment furnishes
the primary motive-power by which more than a
million of sermons are annually dealt out from


the Christian pulpits of the United States alone,
at a cost of many millions of dollars, levied mainly
upon the pockets of the poor, which have the ef-
fect of exciting in the minds of the religious
classes the most agonizing emotions and the most
torturing fears, often producing, temporarily,
the ruin of health and happiness, even among the
most virtuous; and the people (and most of the
priests, too) being ignorant of the origin of these
alarming superstitious doctrines, the author con-
siders as ample warrant, upon moral grounds,
for attempting the task of aiding in checking the
evil and demoralizing effects of this barbarous,
anti-civilizing and terrifying heathen superstition.

Whether these reasons furnish a sufficient just-
ification for such an enterprise, is left for the can-
did reader to judge.

It is gratifying to learn that the superstitious
fear, which in every age and country in which it
has prevailed and enslaved the minds of thou-
sands, and still holds millions in its iron grasp,
is likely to be better understood in its real nature,
its pernicious effects and in its origin.

Kebsey Gbaves

Foreword. By Marshall J. Gauvin______________




Evils and Demoralizing Effects of the Doctrine of End-
less Punishment..............................


Ancient Traditions Respecting the Origin of Evil and the


A Wicked Devil and an Endless Hell not Taught in the
Jewish Scriptures............................


Explanation of the Words Devil and Hell in the Old


God (and not the Devil) the Author of Evil According
to the Bible.................................


God and the Devil Originally Twin-Brothers, and known
by the same Titles...........................


Origin of the Terms, “Kingdom of Heaven,” “Gates of
Hell,” etc.; also of the Tradition Respecting the
Dragon Chasing the Woman, the Woman Clothed

with the Sun, etc. ----------------------













Hell First Instituted in the Skies. Its Origin and Descent

from Above.................................... 78


Origin of the Tradition of “The Bottomless Pit.” ............ 80


Origin of the Belief in a Lake of Fire and Brimstone. 82


Where is Hell; Ancient Notions Respecting its Origin. 87


Origin of the Idea of Man’s Evil Thoughts being Prompt-
ed by a Devil............................... 90


The Christian’s Devil, Where Imported or Borrowed
from........................................ 94


The Punitive Terms of the Bible of Oriental Origin... 97


The Doctrine of After-Death Punishment Proved to be of
Heathen and Priestly Origin................ 104


Explanation of Hell, Hades, Tartarus; Infemus, Gehenna,
and Tophet_________________________________ 115


One Hundred and Sixty-three Questions for Believers in
Post Mortem Punishment.---------------------117


Origin of the Traditions Respecting “War in Heaven/9
and an Explanation of the Terms Hell, Hades, Tartar
rus, Gehenna, Sheol, Valley of Hinnom, etc___  144


Should we discredit it because of a 10 year German Nazi period in 12-20.000 year of its history?

see also


THE SWASTIKA,  THE EARLIEST KNOWN SYMBOL, by Wilson, Thomas, 1832-1902;


Curator, Department of Prehistoric Anthropology, IT. S. National Museum.

see also
On the Meaning and Origin of the Fylfot and Swastika.
by Robert Philips Greg , Society of Antiquaries of London 1884


Amulets and superstitions : the original texts with translations and descriptions of a long series of Egyptian, Sumerian, Assyrian, Hebrew, Christian, Gnostic and Muslim amulets and talismans and magical figures, with chapters on the evil eye, the origin of the amulet, the pentagon, the swastika, the cross (pagan and Christian), the properties of stones, rings, divination, numbers, the Kabbâlâh, ancient astrology, etc., bySir E. A. Wallis Budge ... 1930
by Budge, E. A. Wallis (Ernest Alfred Wallis), Sir, 1857-1934.


An English gentleman, versed in prehistoric arclueology, visited me
in the summer of 1894, and during our conversation asked if wc had
the Swastika in America. I answered, “ Yes,” and showed him two . >
or three specimens of it. He demanded if we had any literature on the
subject. I cited him De Mortillet, I)e Morgan, and Zmigrodzki, and
he said, “ Xo, I mean English or American.” I began a search which
proved almost futile, as even the word Swastika did not appear in such
works as Worcester’s or Webster’s dictionaries, the Encyclopedic Dic-
tionary, the Encyclopedia Britannica, Johnson’s Universal Cyclo-
pedia, the People’s Cyclopedia, nor Smith’s Dictionary of Greek and
Roman Antiquities, his Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology,
or his Classical Dictionary. I also -searched, with the same results,
Mollett’s Dictionary of Art and Archeology, Fairholt’s Dictionary of
Terms in Art, “L’Art Gothique,” by Gonza, Perrot and Chipiez’s exten-
sive histories of Art in Egypt, in Chaldea and Assyria, and in Phe-
nicia; also “The Cross, Ancient and Modern,” by W. W. Blake, “The
History of the Cross,” by John Ashton; and a reprint of a Dutch work
by Wildener. In the American Encyclopedia the description is errone-
ous, while all the Century Dictionary says is, “ Same as fylfot,” and
“ Compare Crux Ansata and Gammadion.” I thereupon concluded that
this would be a good subject for presentation to the Smithsonian Insti-
tution for “diffusion of knowledge among men.”

The principal object of this paper has been to gather and put in a
compact form such information as is obtainable concerning the Swas-
tika, leaving to others the task of adjustment of these facts and their



arrangement into an harmonious theory. The only conclusion sought
[to be deduced from the facts stated is as to the possible migration in
v prehistoric times of the Swastika and similar objects.

No conclusion is attempted as to the time or place of origin, or the
primitive meaning of the Swastika, because these are considered to be
lost in antiquity. The straight line, the circle, the cross, the triangle,
are simple forms, easily made, and might have been invented and
re-invented in every age of primitive man and in every quarter of the
globe, each time being an independent invention, meaning much or
little, meaning different, things among different peoples or at different
times among the jsfifne people; or they may have had no settled or
definite meaning./ But the Swastika wasjprobably the first to be madel
with a definite inWrtion and a continuous or consecutive meaning, the\
^knowledge of which passed from person to person, from tribe to tribe, \
j from people to people, and from nation to nation, until, with possibly^.
^changed meanings, it has finally circled the globe.

There are many disputable questions broached intliis paper. The
uthor is aware of the differences of opinion thereon among learned
men, and he has not attempted to dispose of these questions in the
few sentences employed in their announcement. He has been con-
servative and has sought to.avoid dogmatic decisions of controverted
questions. The antiquity of man, the locality of his origin, the time
of his dispersion and the course of his migration, the origin of bronze
and the course of its migration, all of which may be more or less
^/involved in a discussion of the Swastika, are questions not to be
settled by the dogmatic assertions of any individual.

Much of the information in this paper is original, and relates to pre-
historic more than to modern times, and extends to nearly all the coun-
tries of the globe. It is evident that the author must depend on other
discoverers; therefore, all books, travels, writers, and students have
been laid under contribution without scruple. Due acknowledgment
is hereby made for all quotations of text or figures wherever they occur.

Quotations have been freely made, instead of sifting the evidence and
(giving the substance. The justification is that there has never been
any sufficient marshaling of the evidence on the subject, and that the
former deductions have been inconclusive; therefore, quotations of
authors are given in their own words, to the end that the philosophers
who propose to deal with the origin, meaning, and cause of migration of
_ilie Swastika will have all the evidence before them.

Assumptions may appear as to antiquity, origin, and migration of
the Swastika, but it is explained that many times these only reflect
the opinion of-the writers who are quoted, or are put forth as working

The indulgence of the reader is asked, and it is hoped that he will
endeavor to harmonize conflicting statements upon these disputed [
questions rather than antagonize them.


I.—Definitions, Description, and Origin.


The simple cross made with two sticks or marks belongs to prehistoric
times. Its first appearance among men is lost in antiquity. One may
theorize as to its origin, but there is no historical identification of it
either in epoch or by country or xieople, The sign is itself so simple that
it might have originated among any people, however primitive, and in
any age, however remote. The meaning given to the earliest cross is
equally unknown. Everything concerning its beginning is in the realm
of speculation/' But a-differentiation grew up in early times among
nations by which certain forms of the cross have been known under cer-
tain names and with specific significations. Some of these, such as the
Maltese cross, are historic and can be well identified.

The principal forms of the cross, known as symbols or ornaments, can
be reduced to a few classes, though when combined with heraldry its use
extends to 385 varieties.1

It is not the purpose of this paper to give a history of the cross, but
the x>rincipal forms are shown by way of introduction to a study of -the..
A Swastika.

Ij The Latin cross, Crux immissa, (fig. 1) is found on coins, medals, and
5 ornaments anterior to the Christian era. It was on this cross that^
•f Christ is said to have been crucified, and thus it became accepted as
J the Christian cross.

[ The Greek cross (fig. 2) with arms of equal length crossing at rigbtj
j angles, is found on Assyrian and Persian monuments and tablets,!

, Greek coins and statues.   ^

The St. Andrew’s cross, Crux decussata, (fig. 3) is the same as the
Greek cross, but turned to stand on two legs.

Fig. 1.

latin cross (Crux irnmixsa).


Fig. 3.


1 William Berry, Encyclopaedia Heraldica, 1828-1840.


The Crux ansata (fig. 4) according to Egyptian mythology, was
Ankh, the emblem of Ka, the spiritual double of man. It was also said
to indicate a union of Osiris and Isis, and was regarded as a symbol of
the generative principle of nature.

The Tau cross (fig. 5), so called from its resemblance to the Greek
letter of that name, is of uncertain, though ancient, origin-
In Scandinavian mythology it passed under the name
of u Thor’s hammer,” being therein confounded with the
Swastika. It was also called St. Anthony’s cross for the
Egyptian hermit of that name, and was always colored
blue. Clarkson says this mark was received by the Mitli-
raeists on their foreheads at the time of their initiation.
0. W. King, in his work entitled uEarly Christian Nuinis-
Fig.4. matics” (p. 214), expresses the opinion that the Tau cross
Egyptian cross was placed on the foreheads of men who cry after aboini-
(Cmx ansata). natj011s> (Ezekiel ix, 4.) It is spoken of as a phallic

Another variety of the cross appeared about the second century,
composed of a union of the St. Andrew’s cross and the letter P (fig. 6),
being the first two letters of the Greek word XPT2T02 (Christus).
This, with another variety containing all the foregoing letters, passed
as the monogram of Christ (fig. 6).

As an instrument of execution, the cross, besides being the inter-
section of two beams with four projecting arms, was frequently of
compound forms as Y> on which the convicted person was fastened by
the feet and hung head downward. Another form | |, whereon he was

Fig. 5.



Labaruin of Coustautine.

fastened by one foot and one hand at each upper corner; still another
form rp, whereon his body was suspended on the central ux>right with
his arms outstretched upon the cross beams.

Fig. 7 represents the sign of the military order of the Knights of
Malta. It is of medieval origin.

Fig. 8 (a and b) represents two styles of Celtic crosses. These belong
chiefly to Ireland and Scotland, are usually of stone, and frequently
set up at marked places on the road side.




Higgins, in bis “Anacalypsis,” a rare and costly work, almost an ency-
clopedia of knowledge,1 says, concerning the origin of the cross, that
the official name of the governor of Tibet, Lama, comes from the ancient
Tibetan word for the cross. The original spelling was L-a-m-li. This
is cited with approval in Davenport’s
“Aphrodisiacs” (p. 13).

Of the many forms of the crossjl
the Swastika, is the most ancientJ
Despite the theories and speculations
of students, its origin is unknown. It
began before history, and is properly
classed as prehistoric. Its descrip-
tion is as follows: The bars of tlicT
normal Swastika (frontispiece and
fig. 0) are straight, of equal thickness
throughout, and cross each other at
right angles, making four arms of equal size, length, and style. TlieirL
peculiarity is that all the ends are bent at right angles and in the samef?

direction, right or left. Prof. Max
Muller makes the symbol different
according as the arms are bent to the
right or to the left. That bent to the
right he denominates the true Swas-
tika, that bent to the left he calls
Suavastika (fig. 10), but he gives no
authority for the state-
ment, and the author has
been unnble to find, ex-
cept in Burnouf, any justification for a difference of names.

Professor Goodyear gives the title of uMeander” to that
form of Swastika which bends~two or more times (fig. 11).
r The Swastika is sometimes represented with dots or
points in the corners of the intersections (fig. 12a), and occasionally
the same when without bent ends (fig. 12fr), to which Zmigrodzki gives

Fig. 9.


Fig. 10.




f* Fig. 11.








I v/




the name of Croix Sicasticale. Some Swastikas have three dots placed
equidistant around each of the four ends (fig. 12c).

1 Higgins, “Anacalypsis,” London, 1836, i,p. 230.


There are several varieties possibly related to the Swastika which havq
been found in almost every part of toe globe, and though the relation
may appear slight, and at first sight difficult to trace, yet it will
appear more or less intimate as the examination is pursued through
its ramifications/iYs this paper is an investigation into and report
upon facts rather than conclusions to be drawn from them, it is deemed
wise to give those forms bearing even possible relations to the Swas-
tika. Certain of them have been accepted by the author as related
to the Swastika, while others have been rejected 5 but this rejection

Fig. 13a.


Tetraskolion (four-armed). *

Fig. 13b.

Triskelion (throe armed).





(Five or many armed.)

Fig. 13d.



has been confined to cases where the known facts seemed to justify
another origin for the symbol. Speculation has been avoided.


The Swastika has been called by different names in different coun-
tries, though nearly all countries have in later years accepted the ancient
Sanskrit name of Swastika: and this name is recommended as the most
deHiiite"and certain, being now the most general and, indeed, almost
universal. It was formerly spelled s-v-a-s-t-i-c-a and s-n-a-s-t-i-k-a, but
pie later spelling, both English and French, is s-w-a-s-t-i-k-a. The
definition and etymology of the word is thus given in Littre’s French

.. SvastiTca, or Swastika, a mystic figure used by several (East) Indian sects. It was
/ equally well known to the Brahmins as to tlie Buddhists. Most of the rock
\ inscriptions in the Buddhist caverns in the west of India aro preceded or followed by
J the holy (sacramcntelle) sign of the Swastika. (Eug. Burnouf, “Lo Lotus de la bonne
j loi.” Paris, 1852, p. 625.; It was seen on the vases and pottery of Rhodes (Cyprus)
/ and Etruria. (F. Delaunay, Jour. Off., Nov. 18,1873, p. 7024, 3d Col.)

Etymology: A Sanskrit word signifying happiness, pleasure, good luck. It is com-
posed of Su (equivalent of Greek ev), “good,” and asti, “being,” “good being,” with
\ the suffix lea (Greek ua, Latin co).

In the “Revue d’Ethnographie” (iv, 18S5, p. 820), Mr. Dumoutier
gives the following analysis of the Sanskrit swastika:

Su, radical, signifying good, well, excellent, or snvidas, prosperity.

Asti, third person, singular, indicative present of the verb as, to bo, which is sum
in Latin.

Ka, suffix forming the substantive.

Professor Whitney in the Century Dictionary says, Swastika—[San-
skrit, lit., “of good fortune.” Svasti (Su. well, -f asti, being), welfare.]
Same as fylfot. Compare Crux ansata and gamma (lion.

In “Ilios” (p. 317), Max Muller says:

Ethnologically, srastika is derived from svasti, and svasti from su, “well,” and as,
“to be.” Svasti occurs frequently in the Veda, both as a noun in a sense of happiness,
and as an adverb in the sense of “well” or “hail!” It corresponds to the Grech
evedrai. The derivation Svasti-ka is of later date, and it always means an auspicious
sign, such as are found most frequently among lluddliists and Jainas.

M. Eugene B.urnouf1 defines the mark Swastika as follows:

A monogrammatic sign of four branches, of which the ends are curved at right
angles, the name signifying, literally, the sign of benediction or good augury.

The foregoing explanations relate only to the present accepted name
“Swastika.” The sign Swastika must have existed long before the
name was given to it. It must have been in existence long before the
Buddhist religion or the Sanskrit language.

In Great Britain the common name given to the Swastika from Anglo-
Saxon times by those who apparently had no knowledge Avhcneeit came,
or that it came from any other than their own country, was Fylfot, said
to have been derived from the Anglo-Saxon fower fot, meaning four- ,
footed, or many-footed.1 2

George Waring, in his work entitled “Ceramic Art in Remote Ages”
(p.'tO), says:

The word [Fylfot] is Scandinavian and is eompounue_ of Old Norsefuil, equivalent
to the Anglo-Saxon fela, German riel, many, and foir, foot, the many-footed figure.
*   *   * It is desirable to have some settled name by which to describe it • we will

take the simplest and most descriptive, the “Fylfot.”

He thus transgresses one of the oldest and soundest rules of scien-
tific nomenclature, and ignores the fact that the name Swastika has been
employed for this sign in the Sanskrit language (the etymology of the
word naturally gave it the name Svastika, sv—good or well, asti—to
be or being, or it is) and that two tlfonsand and more years of use in
Asia and Europe had sanctioned and sanctified that as its name. The
use of Fylfot is confined to comparatively few persons in Great Britain

1   “Des Sciences et Religion,” p. 256.

2R. P. Greg, “The Fylfot and Swastika,” Archieologia, xlviii, part 2,1885, p. 298;
Goblet d’Alviella, “Migration des Symboles,” p.50.

II. Mis. 90, pt. 2----49


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