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Re: The Dawn of European Civilization By V. GORDON CHILDE 1923
« Reply #45 on: March 24, 2018, 09:31:05 PM »
0

 DAWN OF EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION

But each, column is virtually independent and should be regarded
as a single scroll hanging freely from its own roller. The lower end is
always loose, so that, as far as pure archaeology is concerned, each
scroll could be rolled up at least to the 1400 notch—deduced from
segmented fayence beads. Nuclear physicists have indeed diffidently
offered some provisional radio-carbon dates1 that might act as pins
to keep some scrolls extended. So in column 15 the Windmill Hill
culture (at Ehenside Tam in the Lake District!) might be pinned about
3000 b.c.1 2 and the Secondary Neolithic of Stonehenge I at 1850; in
column 7 Early Cortaillod about 2740,3 and in column 14 the earliest,
A, funnel-beakers at 2650, while in column 2 Danubian I (in Germany!)
might go back before 4000.4 But radio-carbon dating proves to be
infected by so many potential sources of error that European pre-
historians accept its results with as much reserve as the physicists
offer them. In any case the available dates do not suffice to decide
between the competing archaeological chronologies of the European
Bronze Age set out on pp. 135. The Stonehenge figure perhaps makes
the extreme dates for the beginning of the Unetician culture—before
2000 and after 1600 b.c. respectively—less likely, but any year between
1950 and 1650 B.c. would still be equally defensible. Fortunately, for
some positive conclusions at least, these uncertainties do not matter.

Whichever chronology be eventually vindicated, the primacy of
the Orient remains unchallenged. The Neolithic Revolution was
accomplished in South-Western Asia; its fruits—cultivated cereals
and domestic stock—were slowly diffused thence through Europe,
reaching Denmark only three centuries or so after the Urban Revolu-
tion has been completed in Egypt and Sumer. Ere then the techniques
of smelting and casting copper had been discovered and were being
intelligently applied in Egypt and Mesopotamia, to be in their turn
diffused round the Mediterranean during the third millennium, but
north of the Alps only at its close, if not already in the second. The
development of industry and commerce in Greece and subsequently
in Temperate Europe was as much dependent on Oriental capital as
the industrialization of India and Japan was on British and American
capital last century.

On the other hand, European societies were never passive recipients
of Oriental contributions, but displayed more originality and inventive-

1   The method is explained by Zeuner, Dating the Past (1952), pp. 341 ff.

2   Libby, Radio Carbon Dating (Chicago, 1953), 75- British prehistorians unanimously
reject this date.

8 See p. 291, n. 3.

4   These figures have frequently been mentioned by archaeologists, but not formally
published by the responsible physicists.

342
 THE PREHISTORY OF EUROPEAN SOCIETY

ness in developing Oriental inventions than had the inventors’ more
direct heirs in Egypt and Hither Asia. This is most obvious in the
Bronze Age of Temperate Europe. In the Near East many metal types
persisted unchanged for two thousand years; in Temperate Europe an
extraordinarily brisk evolution of tools and weapons and multiplication
of types occupied a quarter of that time.

The startling tempo of progress in European prehistory thus docu-
mented is not to be explained racially by some mystic property of
European blood and soil, nor yet by reference to mere material habitat,
but rather in sociological and historical terms. No doubt the Cro-
Magnons of Europe created a unique art in the Upper Palaeolithic
Age while their mesolithic successors devised and bequeathed to con-
temporary Europe much ingenious equipment for exploiting their
environment (p. 14). No doubt, too, its deeply indented coastline,
its propitiously situated mountain ranges and navigable streams, and
its resources in tin, copper, and precious metal have conferred on our
continent advantages possessed by no other comparable land mass,
while the Mediterranean was a unique school for navigators. But the
creative utilization of these favours of Nature must be interpreted in
sociological terms.

The bounteous water-supply and seemingly unlimited land for
cultivation allowed Early Neolithic farmers an unrestricted dispersion
of population; dense aggregations had to grow up in the arid cradle of
cereal cultivation where settled farming was possible only in a few
oases or in narrow zones along the banks of permanent rivers. Hence
Jericho, the earliest known neolithic settlement in the Near East,
probably contained ten times as many inhabitants as any Early
Neolithic village in Europe. But such aggregations require rigid dis-
cipline which the scarcity of water enables society to enforce. So from
the first the Oriental environment put a premium on conformity. In
Europe it was always feasible, however perilous, to escape the restraints
of irksome custom by clearing fresh land for tillage; indeed, such an
escape was actually imposed on the younger children of a village in
historical times, at least in Italy, by the Sacred Spring. But such dis-
persion under neolithic conditions of self-sufficiency encouraged
divergence of traditions and the formation of independent societies.
Just that is imperfectly reflected during our period II in the multi-
plication within a comparatively small area of cultures distinguished
by differences in ceramic art, burial rites, equipment, and even economy.
Thereby even on our simplified map Europe appears in contrast to
Hither Asia where the Halafian and Ubaid cultures are successively
but uniformly spread over a vast area. Again in the ideological sphere

343
 DAWN OF EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION

the variations in megalithic architecture—really far greater than
could be indicated here—should be the counterpart of the fission of a
single and presumably Oriental orthodoxy into a myriad local sects.
It might then be compared to the disruption of Christianity after the
Reformation and contrasted with the faithful repetition of temple
plans from the Persian Gulf to the Orontes in the third millennium.
In short, a multiplicity of neolithic societies, distinguished by divergent
traditions but never completely isolated one from the other, offered
a European peasant some possibility of comparison and free choice.

The observed diversity was, of course, due not only to the splitting
of a few immigrant societies and foreign traditions. Divergence was
accelerated and emphasized also on the one hand by the multiplicity of
pre-existing mesolithic groups who absorbed the neolithic techniques
or were absorbed in the neolithic societies, on the other by the plurality
of external stimuli that impinged upon them from Africa, the Levant,
Anatolia, and perhaps Central Asia.

Still, material progress was impossible without an accumulation of
capital, a concentration of the social surplus. This was effected in
Early iEgean times and during period III of the temperate zone by the
emergence of chieftains or aristocracies, spiritual or temporal; it made
effective a demand for reliable metal weapons promoted by the con-
commitant intensification of warlike behaviour. Yet the small inde-
pendent groups of herdsmen, cultivators, and fishers, owing allegiance
to such rulers, just could not by themselves accumulate resources
sufficient for the development of a metallurgical industry and of an
efficient machinery for the distribution of its products. That had
demanded the Urban Revolution, the concentration of the surplus
produced by thousands of irrigation-farmers in the hands of a tiny
minority of priests, kings, and nobles in the valleys of the Nile, the
Tigris-Euphrates, and the Indus. Fortunately the effective demands
of the masters of this concentrated wealth in Egypt and Mesopotamia
enabled iEgean farmers and fishermen to secure a share in the surplus
thus accumulated without themselves submitting to the same degree
of political unification and class division. The archseological picture
of Bronze Age Greece at its most prosperous period corresponds well
with Homer’s description of many independent but loosely federated
principalities, smaller but more numerous than even the Temple
States of pre-Sargonic Mesopotamia.

In the sequel, Minoan and Mycensean demand for tin, gold, and
eventually amber, created a reliable market for the peculiar products
of Temperate Europe. Thus indirectly the barbarian societies of Central
Europe and thg British Isles obtained a share in the capital accumu-

344
 THE PREHISTORY OF EUROPEAN SOCIETY

lated through the Urban Revolution for the development of their own
extractive, manufacturing, and distributive industries without sub-
mitting to the repressive discipline of urban civilization or suffering
the irrevocable class division it entailed. Specialist craftsmen were
liberated from the absorbing preoccupation of food production, but
yet were not dependent on a single despot’s court, temple, or feudal
estate. They must no doubt sell their products and their skill to patrons,
but whether these were classless societies, as perhaps in Bohemia and
on the Middle Danube, or chieftains, as in the Saale-Warta province
and in Wessex, there was plenty of competition for their services. As
in Homeric Greece, a craftsman was welcome everywhere. So they had
every inducement to display their virtuosity and inventiveness. In
the European Bronze Age metal-workers were in fact producing for an
international market.

In the ancient East the Urban Revolution had finally divided the
societies affected by it into two economically opposed classes and had
irretrievably consigned craftsmen, the pioneers of material progress,
to the lower class. In prehistoric European and Mycenaean societies
the cleavage was never so deep, if only because of their smallness and
poverty. Craftsmen at least were not depressed into a class of slaves
or serfs.

345
 H

to

00



On

O'



co
 Segmented faience beads
 MAP I

Co

4^

00

Europe in Period I,
 MAP II

Oo

5* Meridian of 0* (ii-eeirricli

Europe in Period II.
 MAP Ilia

u>

c_n

O
 MAP IIIb

co

Cn

H

Europe in Period III: Beaker and Battle-axe cultures.
 MAP IV

Europe in Period IV: Early Bronze Age cultures and trade routes.
 NOTES ON TERMINOLOGY

Definitions of certain terms, descriptive of ceramic decoration, here used in a
special or restricted sense.

Cardial—decorated with lines executed with a shell edge.

Channelled—with relatively wide and shallow incisions, round-bottomed.
Cordoned—with applied strips of clay in relief.

Crusted—with colours (paints) applied to the vase surface after the firing of
the vessel.

Excised—with regular small triangular or square hollows made by depressing the
surface or actually cut out ("fret-work” or “chip-carving” or "false relief”).

Fluted—with flutings separated only by a sharp narrow ridge.

Grooved—with broad incisions, not normally round-bottomed.

Incrusted—with incised lines filled with white or coloured paste.

Maggot—with the impressions of a loop of whipped threads, see Fig. 155.

Particoloured—by firing the vessel so that part is reddened by the oxidization
of the iron oxides exposed to a free access of air while part is blackened by
the reduction of these oxides. (Egyptian black-topped ware is one variety.)

Rusticated—by roughening the surface, generally covered with a thick slip, by
pinching with the fingers, brushing, etc. ("barbotine”).

Rouletted—as described on p. 224.

Stab-and-drag—decorated with continuous lines formed by jabbing a pointed
implement into the soft clay, then drawing the point backwards a short
distance and stabbing it in again, and so on.

Celt, a term formerly used to describe chopping implements of stone or metal
that could be used as axes, adzes, gouges, chisels, or even hoe-blades. Here we
distinguish, where possible, between the several types and in particular describe
as

Adze—a celt that is asymmetrical about its major axis so that it could not
possibly be used as an axe (Fig. 29, D, B). When hafted the handle is
perpendicular to the plane of the blade.

Axe—therefore describes a celt that is symmetrical about its major axis even
though such a celt could often be used as an adze.

An axe (or adze) provided with a hole for the shaft, like a modem axe-head, is
termed a shaft-hole axe (or adze), but, if the butt end is elongated and
carefully shaped, the term battle-axe is conventionally used.

Burials should be described as contracted when the knees are drawn up towards
the chin so as to make an angle of 90° or less with the spinal column. When
the angle is more than a right angle, the terra, flexed should be used. Owing
to ambiguities in the authorities followed, it has not been possible to main-
tain this distinction strictly here.

Z

353
 ABBREVIATIONS

AAH.

"Aamose”

Aarbager
Acta Ay oh.
Act. y Mem.

AA

AE.

AfO.

AfA.

Afas.

AJA.

Altschles.
Am. Anthr.
AM.

Ampurias
Antiquity
Ant. J.
Anuari
Arch.

Arch. Camb.
Arch. Ert.
Arch. Hung.
Arch. J.

AR.

Arh. Vest.
Arkh. Pam.

Arsberdttelse.

APL.

AsA.

PERIODICALS AND COLLECTIVE WORKS

Acta Archesologica Hungarica, Buda-Pest.

“Stenalderbopladser i Aamosen,” by T. Mathiassen, J. Troels-
Srnith, and M. Degerbol, Nordiske Fortidsminder, iii, 3,
Copenhagen, 1943.

Aarb0ger for Nor dish Oldkyndighed og Historic, Copenhagen.
Acta Archesologica, Copenhagen.

Adas y Memorias de la Sociedad Espanola de Antropologla,
Etnograffa y Preistoria, Madrid.

’Ap^aioKoyiKov Ae\rLov, Athens.

Archcsologiai Ertcsit'6, Buda-Pest (A Magyar Tudomanyos
Akadexnia).

Archiv fur Orientforschung, Vienna.

Archiv fur Anthropologic, Brunswick.

Association fran9aise pour Tavancement des Sciences (Reports
of congresses).

American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of
America).

Altschlesien, Breslau (Schlesische Altertumsverein).

American Anthropologist (New Haven, Conn.).

Mitteilungen des archaologischen Instituts des deutschen Reiches,
Athenische Abteilung.

Ampurias, Barcelona.

Antiquity, Gloucester.

Antiquaries' Journal, London (Society of Antiquaries).

Anuari de I'Institut d’Estudis Catalans, Barcelona.

ArchcBologia, London (Society of Antiquaries).

Archceologia Cambrensis, Cardiff.

See A .E.

Archesologia Hungarica, Buda-Pest.

Archaeological Journal, London (R. Archaeological Institute).

Archeologiske Rozhledy, Praha (Ceckoslovenskd Akademie
VSd).

Arheoloski Vestnik, Ljubljana (Slovenska Akademija Znanosti)

Arkheolog. Pamyaiki U.R.S.R., Kiev (Ukrainian Academy of
Sciences).

Arsberdttelse K. Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundets i Lund.
Archivo de Prehistoria Levantina, Valencia.

Anzeiger fur schweizerische Altertumskunde, Zurich.

354
 ABBREVIATIONS

AsAg.

ASPRB.

Bad. Fb.

BCH.

Belleten

Bl.f.d.V.

Bol.R.Acad.Hist.

BP.

BRGK.

Archives suisses d’Anthropologie generate, Geneva.

American School of Prehistoric Research, Bulletin, New Haven,
Conn.

Badische Fundberichte, Baden-Baden.

Bulletin de correspondance hellenique.

Belleten, Ankara (Turk Tarih Kurumu).

Blatter fur deutsche Vorgeschichte, Konigsberg.

Boletin de la R. Academia de la Historia, Madrid.

Bullettino di paletnologia italiana, Parma, Roma.

Bericht der rbmisch-germanischen Kommission des arch.
Instituts des deutschen Reiches, Frankfurt.

BSA.

BSR.

BSABrux.

BSAPar.

BSPF.

CIIA.

CIPP.

CISPP.

Cuadernos

Dacia

Dolg.

’AW

ESA.

FA.

FM.

FNA.

Fv.

Gallia

Germania

IGAIMK.

Inst. Arch.AR.

IPEK.

lYH-.Mem.

Iraq

Annual of the British School at Athens.

Papers of the British School at Rome.

Bulletin et Memoires de la Soci6te d’Anthropologie de
Bruxelles.

Bulletin de la Soci6t6 d’Anthropologie de Paris.

Bulletin de la Soci6t6 prdhistorique fran£aise, Paris.

Institut international d’anthropologie, Congres.

Comisidn de investigaciones paleontologicas y prehistoricas,
Madrid (Junta para Ampliaci6n de estudios cientificas).

Congres international des sciences pr6historiques et proto-
historiques.

Cuadernos de Historia Primitiva, Madrid.

Dacia'. Recherches et Decouvertes arcMologiques en Roumanie,
Bucuresti.

Dolgozatok a m. kir. Ferencz J dszef-tudom&nyegyetem
archaeologia int6zet6bol, Szeged.

’E<pr]nepis ’ApxaioXoytKrj, Athens.

'Eurasia septentrionalis antiqua, Helsinki.

Folya Archceologica, Buda-Pest.

Finsht Museum, Helsinki.

Fra Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark, Copenhagen.

Fornvannen, Stockholm (K. Vitterhets, Historie och Anti-
kvitets Alcademien).

Gallia, Paris.

Rdmisch-germanische Kommission des archaologischen Insti-
tuts des deutschen Reiches.

Izvesiiya Gos. Akademrya Istorii Materialnoi Kultury, Lenin-
grad-Moskva.

Annual Report of London University Institute of Archaeology,
London.

Jakrbuch fur prdhistorische und ethnographische Kunst, Koln.

Institut de Pal6ontologie humaine, MSmoire, Paris.

Iraq, London (British School of Archaeology in Iraq).

355

Offline PrometheusTopic starter

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Re: The Dawn of European Civilization By V. GORDON CHILDE 1923
« Reply #46 on: March 24, 2018, 09:31:45 PM »
0

 ABBREVIATIONS

JHS.

JNES.

JRAI.

JRSAI.

JSEA.
JST. '

JMV.,

KS.

KSU.

LAAA.

MA.

MAGW.

MAGZ.

Man

Mannus

Mat.

MIA.

MDOG.
MS AN.
MusJ.

Nbl.f.d.V.

NNU.

Not. Sc.

Obzor

OAP.

OIC.

Oudh. Med.
PA.

PDAES.

PGAIMK.

PPS.

PrShisi.

PRIA.

Journal of Hellenic Studies, London (Society for Promotion of
Hellenic Studies).

Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Oriental Institute, Chicago.

Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, London.

Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland,
Dublin.

Junta superior para excavaciones archeologicas, Madrid.

IJahresschrift fur die Vorgeschichte der sachsich-thuringische

I Lander, continued as

(jahresschrift fur Mitteldeutsche Vorgeschichte, Halle.

Kratkie Soobshcheniya o dokladakh i polevykh issledovaniyakh
Instituta Istorii Materialnoi Kultury, Moskva-Leningrad.

Kratkie Soobsceniya, Arkh, Institut, Ukrainian Academy of
Sciences, Kiev.

Annals of Archceology and Anthropology, Liverpool.

Monumenti Antichi, Rome (Accademia dei Lincei).

Mitteilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien.

Mitteilungen der antiquarischen Gesellschaft in Zurich.

Man, London (Royal Anthropological Institute).

Mannus, Berlin-Leipzig (Gesellschaft fur deutsche Vor-
geschichte).

MaUriaux pour Vhistoire primitive et naturelle de Vhomme,
Paris.

Materialy i Issledovaniya po Arkheolgil SSSR., Institut Istorii
Materialnoi Kultury Akademiya Nauk, Moskva-Leningrad.

Mitteilungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft, Berlin.

Memoires de la Soci6t6 des Antiquaires du Nord, Copenhagen.

Museum Journal, Philadelphia (University of Pennsylvania
Free Museum).

Nachrichtenblatt fur deutsche Vorzeit, Leipzig.

Nachrichten aus Niedersdchsens Urgeschichte, Hannover.

Noiizie degli Scavi di Antichitd, Rome (Accademia dei Lincei).

Obzor prahistoricky, Praha.

0 Archceologo Portugues, Lisbon.

Oriental Institute, University of CVcngo 'C??v-nunications,
Publications, or Studies in Orientc' (..'' . r: ,\.

Oudheidkundige Mededeelingen uit ’s Rijksmuseum van
Oudheden te Leiden.

Pamdtky archeologiske a mistopisne, Praha.

Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Exploration Society,
Exeter.

Problemy Istorii Mat. Kult., Leningrad.

Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, Cambridge.

Prihistoire, Paris.

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin.

356
 ABBREVIATIONS

Przeg.A.

PSAS.

PSEA.

PZ.

RAZ.

Raz. i. Pro.

Rev. Anthr.
Rev. Arch.

Rev. Ec. Anthr.

REG.

Real.

Rev. Gnim.
Rivista
Riv. Sc. Pr.
Riv. St. Lig.
RQS.

SA.

SAC.

SGAIMK.
Slov. Arch.
Slov. Dej.

SM.

SMYA.

St. s. Cere.

Swiatowit

TGIM.

TSA.

UJA.

WA.

WPZ.

ZfE.

Przeglad Archeologiczny, Poznan.

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Edin-
burgh.

Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia, Ipswich
(continued as PPS).

Prcehistorische Zeitschrift, Berlin.

Russ. A ntropologicheskii Zhurnal, Moskva.

Razkopki i Proucvaniya Sofia (Naroden Arkheologiceski
Muzei).

Revue Anthropologique, Paris.

Revue Archeologique, Paris.

R6vue de I’Ecole d’Anthropologie de Paris (continued Rev.
Anthr.).

Revue des Etudes grecques, Paris.

Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, edited by Max Ebert, Berlin.
Revista Guimaraes, Guimaraes.

Rivista di Antropologia, Rome.

Rivista di Scienze preistoriche, Florence.

Rivista di Studi liguri, Bordighera.

Rivue des Questions scientifiques, Bruxelles.

Sovietskaya Arkheologiya, Moskva-Leningrad.

Sussex Archceological Collections, Lewes.

Soobshcheniya GAIMK., Leningrad.

Slovenskd Archeologia, Bratislava (Slovenskd Akaddmia Vied).
Slovenski Dejiny, Bratislava (Slov. Akad. Vied) 1947.

Suomen Museo, Helsinki.

Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistyksen A ikakauskirja^ Finsha
Fornminnesforeningens Tidskrift, Helsinki.

Studii §i Cercetdri de Istorie Veche, Bucuresti.

Swiatowit, Warsaw.

Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Istoricheskogo Muzeya, Moskva.

Trudy Setksil ArkhelogU RANION, Moskva.

Ulster Journal of Archeology (3rd ser.), Belfast.

Wiadomosci archeologiczne, Warsaw.

Wiener Prahistorische Zeitschrift, Vienna.

Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Berlin.

357
 BOOKS

(Only books mentioned in more than one chapter are mentioned here.)

Aberg, N. Bronzezeitliche und fruheisenzeitliche Chronologie, Stockholm, 1930-5.
Alaca. See Axik and Kosay.

Arilc, Remzi Oguz. Les Fouilhs d'Alaca Hdyuh, Ankara, 1937.

Bagge and Kjellmark. Stendldersboplatserna vid Siretorp i Blehinge (K. Vitter-
hets, Historie och Antikvitets Akademien), Stockholm, 1939.

Bailloud, C„ and Mieg de Boofzheim, P. Les Civilisations neolithiques de la
France, Paris, 1955.

Banner, J. Das Tisza-Maros-Kords-gebeit, Szeged, 1942.

Berciu, D. Arheologia preistoricd a Olteniei, Craiova, 1939.

Bemabo Brea, L. Gli Scavi nella Caverna degli Arene Candide, Bordighera,
1946, 1956.

Blegen, Caskey, et al. Troy, Princeton, 1950, 1951, 1953.

Bohm. J, Kronika Objeveneho Viku, Praha, 1941.

Bosch-Gimpera, P. Etnologia de la Peninsula Iberica, Barcelona, 1932.
Brondsted, J. Damnarks Oldtid, Copenhagen, 1938-9.

Brinton, G. The Badarian Civilization, London, 1928.

Briusov, A. Ocerki po istorii piemen evropaiskoi casti SSSR. v neoliticeshu
epokhu, Moskva, 1952.

Buttler, W. Der donauldndische und dev westische Kulturhreis der jungeren
Steinzeit (Handbnch der Urgeschichte Deutschlands, 2), Berlin, 1938.
Castillo Yurrita, A. del. La Cultura del Vaso campaniforme, Barcelona, 1928.
Caton-Thompson, G. The Desert Fayum, London, 1935.

Childe, V. G. The Danube in Prehistory, Oxford, 1929.

-----New Light on the Most Ancient East, London, 1954.

-----Prehistoric Communities of the British Isles, Edinburgh, 1940.

Clark, G. The Mesolithic Age in Britain, Cambridge, 1932.

-----Prehistoric Europe: the economic basis, London, 1952.

-----The Mesolithic Settlement of Northern Europe, Cambridge, 1936.

Coon, C. S. The Races of Europe, New York, 1939.

Correia, V. El Neolitico de Pavia, Madrid, 1921 (CIPP. Mem. 27).

Ddchelette, J. Manuel d'ArchSologie prehistorique, celtique et gallo-romaine,
Paris, 1908-14.

Ehrich, R. W. (ed.). Relative Chronologies in Old World Archceology, Chicago,
1954-

Engberg and Shipton. "The Chalcolithic Pottery of Megiddo”, Oriental
Institute Studies, 10, Chicago.

Evans, Arthur. The Palace of Minos and Knossos, London, 1921-8.

Forssander, J. E. Die schwedische Bootaxtkultur, Lund, 1933.

-----Der ostskandinavische Norden wdhrend der dltesten Metallzeit Europas,

Lund, 1936 (Skrifter av K. Humanistiska Vetenskapssamfundet, XXII).

358
 BOOKS

Frankfort, H. Studies in the Early Pottery of the Near East, London, 1925-7
(R. Anthrop. Institute, Occasional Papers, 6 and 8).

Garrod, D. The Stone Age of Mount Carmel, I, Oxford, 1937.

Gerasimov, M. M. Vosstanovlenie Litsa po Cerepu, Moskva (Trudy Instit.
Etnografii, XXVIII), 1955

Giffen, A. E. van. Die Bauart der Einzelgraber, Leipzig, 1930 (Mannus-Bibliothek,
44)-

Hancar, F. Urgeschichte Kaukasiens, Vienna, 1937. Das Pferd im prdhistori-
scher und fruher historischer Zeit, Vienna, 1956.

Hawkes, C. F. C. The Prehistoric Foundations of Europe, London, 1940.

Heurtley, A. W. Prehistoric Macedonia, Cambridge, 1939.

Kosay, Hamit Zubeyr. Ausgrabungen von Alaca Hoyuk, Ankara, 1944, Alaca
Hoyuk Kazisi, Ankara, 1951.

Kostrzewski, J. Prehistoria Ziem Polskisch, Poznan, 1948.

Loe, A. de. La Belgique ancienne, Brussels (Mus6es du Cinquantenaire), 1928.

Laviosa-Zambotti, Le piii antiche Culture agricole Europee, Milano, 1943.

Leisner, G. and V., Die M ?7‘'7   . lev iberischen Halbinsel, I., Der Suden.

(Romisch-germaniscl; !'   . 0. ,17) Berlin, 1943.

Mac White, Eoin, “Estudios sobre las relaciones atlanticas de la peninsula
hispanica” [Dissertationes Matritenses, II), Madrid, 1951.

Marien, M. E., Oud-Belgie, Antwerp, 1952.

Milojcic, V. Chronologie der jungeren Steinzeit Mittel- und Sudosteuropas,
Berlin, 1949.

Nordmann, C. A. “The Megalithic Culture of Northern Europe”, Helsinki, 1935
(SMYA., XXXIX, 3).

Osten, H. H. van der. The Alishar Huy ilk, Chicago, 1929-37 (Oriental Institute
Publications, XIX-XX, XXVIII-XXX).

Patay, P. “Friihbronzezeitliche Kulturen in Ungam”, Dissertationes Pan-
nonicce, S. II, no. 13) Buda-Pest, 1939.

Pendlebury, A. The Archcsology of Crete, London, 1939.

Pericot, L. Espaiia primitiva e romana (Historia de Espana, I), Madrid, 1947.

-----Los Sepulcros MegaUticos Catalanes y la Cultura Pirenaica, Barcelona, 1950.

Pittioni, R. Urgeschichte des bsterreichischen Raumes, Vienna, 1954.

Schaeffer, C. F. A. Missions en Chypre, Paris, 1936.

-----Stratigraphie comparee de I’Asie occidentale, Oxford, 1948.

Schmidt, E. Excavations at Tepe Hissar, Damghan, Philadelphia, 1937.

Schmidt, R. R. Die Burg VuZedol, Zagreb, 1945.

Sprockhoff, G. Die nordische Megalithkultur (Handbiicher der Urgeschichte
Deutschlands, 3), Berlin, 1938.

?----Die Kulturen der jungeren Steinzeit in der Mark Brandenburg (Vor-

geschichiliche Forschungen, I, 4), Berlin, 1926.

Stocky, A. La Boheme pr&historique, Praha, 1929.

Vaufrey, R. Prehistoire de I'Afrique, I, Maghreb, Paris, 1955.

Wace, A. J. B., and Thompson, M. Prehistoric Thessaly, Cambridge, 1912.

Xanthudides, S. The Vaulted Tombs of the Mesard, Liverpool, 1924.

Zeuner, F. E. Dating the Past, London, 1952.

359
 
 INDEX

Figures where a term is defined are printed in Clarendon type.

Aberg, N., 49, 172
adzes: antler, see axes
copper, 91, 120, 139, 271, 275
shaft-hole, 91, 99, 152
stone, 11, 59, 62, 64, 65, 68, 84, 86, 89,
91, 94, 96, 107, 110, 114, 122, 139,
164, 165, 168, 205, 206, 208, 267,
278, 296, 333

iEolian Islands, 81, 229-35, 237-8, 244,
254, 257, 300
air-photographs, 230-1
Alaca Hoyiik, 35, 38, 44, 54, 95, 152, 237
Alapraia (Portugal), 275, 278
Alcaide (Spain), 285
Alcala (Portugal), 275, 280, 286, 340
Alisar (Turkey), 36, 40, 44, 56, 67, 94, 95,
157, 272

Als6n<hnedi (Hungary), 124, 125
altars (model), 60, 61, 97, 101
Altheim (Bavaria), 296-7, 299
amber, 11, 25, 33, 34, 41, 44, 79, 81, 119,
127,   134,   145,   162,   165,   170,   178,

181,   183,   187,   193,   194,   199,   208,

220,   223,   226,   239,   240,   242,   243,

271,   275,   278,   281,   293,   298,   305,

309, 313, 318, 320, 334, 336, 344
amulets, axe, 17, 19, 234, 235, 254, 260,
274, 313, 319

cranian, 290, 291, 311, 314
hares’ phalange, 244, 287, 291
leg, 16, 69, 313
rabbit, 278

anchor ornaments, 71, 239, 257
Anghelu Ruju (Sardinia), 258-9, 262
animals, models of, 101, 115, 188, 209, 230,
300

see also zoomorphic vases
Antequera (Spain), 274, 281, 285
anthropomorphic vases, 17, 43, 46, 90, 91,
101, 111, 118, 142

Apennine culture, 239, 242, 250, 310
arc-pendants, 244, 296, 305, 313, 318
arcs, clay, 40, 271, 274, 275, 280
areas and sizes of settlements, 27, 37, 41,
46, 48, 60, 74, 81, 106, 113, 137, 231,
235, 249, 270, 282, 292, 299, 304,
313, 333

Arene Candide (Liguria), 6, 244-5, 291
Argaric, see El Argar
Ariu?d, 97, 113, 137, 139, 140, 142-3
armlets, bone, 12, 123
metal, 170, 183, 193, 200
shell, 61, 65, 102, 123, 244, 266, 268,
269

stone, 61, 65, 118, 150, 260, 266, 268,
313, 319

arrow-heads: bone, conical, 11, 206-7
double-pointed, 99, 289

flint, hollow based, 27, 68,118, 150, 197,
224, 227, 233, 234, 248, 272, 275,
278, 280, 290, 297, 299
leaf-shaped, 152, 187, 207, 272, 278,
278, 287, 313, 323, 327
triangular, 99, 122, 139, 260, 289, 305
tanged, 93, 194, 241, 247, 260, 269,
278, 303

tanged-and-barbed, 224, 260, 272,
297, 318, 320, 329

transverse, 9, 12, 27, 118, 180, 184,
187, 191, 207, 241, 247, 267, 269,
272, 278, 304,305, 313,318, 331, 334
arrow-straighteners, 8, 74, 79, 114, 116,
156,163,169,180, 226, 248, 260, 334
art: carvings and painting on stone, 190,
209, 248, 250, 253, 259, 269, 278,
317, 328, 336, 338
naturalistic sculpture, 208, 209
see also animal models, amulets, figur-
ines, anthropomorphic vases, zoo-
morphic vases, mseander, spiral,

Asine (Greece), 50, 67, 71, 74, 81
askoi, 60, 69,70-1, 98,103,104,142,241,256
Atlantic climatic phase, 2, 11, 13, 14, 177,
289

Avebury (England), 331
axes: antler, 8, 14, 37, 44, 74, 86, 90, 99,
110, 119, 121, 139, 191, 194, 203,
289, 305, 313

flint, tranchet, 11-13, 179, 191, 194, 234,
305, 314

polished, 9, 150, 167, 169, 178, 182,
187, 194, 197, 290, 313, 323
stone, polished, 4, 12, 17, 27, 37, 44, 64,
68, 94, 99, 114, 125, 180, 193, 231,
234, 235, 244, 246, 266, 267, 271,
274, 276, 277, 282, 289, 293, 295,
296, 298, 299, 305, 318, 324
perforated, 74, 90, 94, 107, 114, 122,
139, 165, 290, 295, 299, 303
copper, flat, 17, 28, 38, 53, 64, 68, 145,
154, 162, 167, 183, 201, 235, 241,
243, 246, 256, 258, 260, 262, 276,
282, 293, 299, 319, 334
flanged, 38, 130, 246, 319
shaft-hole, 19, 28, 95, 99, 130, 145,
152, 154, 158, 169, 299
bronze, flanged, 130, 132, 241. 248, 249,
256, 262, 282, 297, 313, 319, 334
winged, 83, 243, 250
palstav, 199, 262, 339
socketed, 47, 206, 211, 262
double, 28, 25, 74, 78, 108, 184, 193,
194, 262, 295, 318
shaft-hole, 240
see also adzes, battle-axes

361
 INDEX

axe-adzes, 28, 53, 68, 92, 99, 120,121, 139,
152, 157, 158, 262
Azilian culture, 4

Baalburg culture, 193, 196
Baden culture, 92, 124-9, 132, 187, 196,
242, 295

baking plates, 177,178, 293, 305
Banyata (Bulgaria), 84, 94-6, 103
Barkaer (Denmark), 180.
barley, 13, 15, 37, 60, 106, 136, 177, 183,
248, 266, 270, 276, 289, 292, 298,
323, 328, 330

barrows, long, 149, 181, 188, 190, 191, 213,
259, 306, 317, 325

round, 6, 72, 77, 80, 132, 145, 150, 156,
159, 160, 167, 181, 185, 200, 213,

226, 242, 247, 268, 274, 276, 297,

306,   317, 319, 329

basketry models for pots, 60, 62, 112, 115,
116, 118, 184, 187, 190, 192, 193,

227,   266

battle-axes, antler, 121, 123, 146,159, 161,
164

copper, 38, 68 n., 120, 125, 154, 161
stone, 38, 44, 43, 67, 68, 71, 94, 99, 119,
125, 139-54, 159 ff., 160, 169, 179,
182, 187, 226, 242, 247, 291, 295,
330, 318, 334
model, 68, 139, 144, 169
beads, disc, 118, 122, 260, 268, 272
double-axe, 335
hammer, 24, 329, 335
segmented, 34, 128, 132, 147, 167, 199,
239, 280, 282, 283, 309, 320, 336,
339

tortoise, 260, 278, 281, 310
spacer, 79, 81, 135, 181
winged, 54, 156, 254, 297
Beaker culture, 119, 127, 130, 132, 147,
162, 167, 185, 192, 221, 222-8, 234,
247, 258, 261, 272, 276, 278, 279,

307,   309, 318, 329
beans, 106, 270, 289

Becker, C. J., 13, 177, 191, 208, 210
Bell Beaker, see Beaker
binocular vases, 98, 142
birch pitch, 10, 14, 290
bits, bridle, 248

block topped, see particoloured
block vases, 19, 33, 113, 116, 114
boats, 11, 51, 52, 125, 208, 259
boat axes, see battle-axes
Bodrogkeresztur culture, 92, 120-3, 126
Boian culture, 94, 96-8, 143
Boreal climatic phase, 3, 5, 9, 10, 203,
208

Bosch-Gimpera, P., 221
bossed bone plaques, 44, 76, 235, 254
bothroi, 37, 66, 125
bottles, lopsided, 90, 94, 108
bows, reinforced, 10, 211
see also arrow-heads

Brea, L. Bernabd, 229, 237, 244, 257
Brenner Pass, 127, 128, 242, 249, 302
Briusov, A. YA., 11, 147, 171, 210
Brze£d Kujawski (Poland), 123, 144, 146,
180

Bubanj (Yugoslavia), 92, 93, 103
Biiyiik Giilliicek (Turkey), 36, 95
burials: in caves, 4, 5, 17, 23, 226, 240, 241,
242, 250, 258, 266, 278, 307, 311,
312

in short’ cists, 51, 72, 73, 81, 245, 268,
282, 290, 306, 317

in jars, 24, 41, 72, 73, 77, 81, 239, 282
in middens, 6, 7, 12, 87
in settlements, 77, 87, 101, 282, 294, 305
collective, 23, 24, 51, 72, 82, 91,126,165,
182, 185, 188, 198, 219, 226, 233,
235, 241, 242, 254, 266, 268, 270,
306

double, 115, 120, 125, 151, 156, 159 n.,
168, 200, 201, 283, 290
contracted, 5, 6, 23, 101, 118, 125, 131,
145, 159, 160, 166, 168, 226, 245,
246, 259, 269, 290, 293, 297
erect 2Q9

extended, 5, 6, 9, 12, 14, 78, 160, 182,
188, 191, 209, 250, 293
flexed, 5, 112, 115, 125, 241, 246
see also cemeteries, cremation, cists,
gallery graves, passage graves,
roclc-cut tombs, tholoi
of skulls, 4, 102
animals, 124, 167
Butmir (Yugoslavia), 93-4, 242
buttons: shanked, 112, 118, 272
V-perforated, 226, 241, 248, 260, 263,
291, 310, 329
prismatic, 258, 261, 272
Bygholm (Denmark), 183, 186

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Re: The Dawn of European Civilization By V. GORDON CHILDE 1923
« Reply #47 on: March 24, 2018, 09:32:23 PM »
0

C 14, see radio-carbon
cairns, see barrows

callais, 223, 268, 269, 271, 275, 278, 281,
282, 309, 313, 315, 319
Campigny, le (France), 14, 305
cannibalism, 12, 102, 115, 290
Capo Graziano (Italy), 238, 256
Capsian culture, 7, 268
Cardial ornament, 58, 184, 230, 258, 269,
287, 353

Castelluccio culture, 234-7, 254, 256
Catacomb culture and period, 149, 154-6,
169, 184, 300, 301

cattle (bovids), domestic, 13, 22, 37, 60,
85, 106, 124, 136, 145, 150, 166, 177,
179, 201, 231, 248, 289, 298, 299,
304, 323, 328, 332

causewayed camps, 230, 292, 323, 332
cavalry, 82, 269

caves, inhabited, 4, 6, 85, 110, 265, 308
sepulchral, see burials
celts, see adzes, axes, chisels, gouges

362
 INDEX

cemeteries,   24, 27, 41,   48, 72, 115, 118,   120,

123,   125,   131,   132,   144,   149,   164,

166,   168,   204,   209,   226,   235,   239,

246,   250,   258,   270,   274,   290,   298,

301, 312, 337

chamber tombs, see rock-cut tombs
Chamblandes culture, 245, 290
channelled decoration, 32, 96, 125, 278,

306,   310, 317, 324, 326, 353
chariots, 78

Chassean or Chassey culture, 245, 287, 293,
303, 305, 206, 310, 317
chiefs, 37, 67, 78, 90, 119, 125, 144, 150,
151, 156, 162, 165, 170, 188, 200,
201, 209, 262, 281, 312, 320, 334
chisels, socketed bone, 11, 208
metal, 47, 130, 132, 154
chronology, 9, 15, 21, 26, 37, 47, 49, 57, 78,
80, 103, 110, 116, 126, 134, 135,
157, 175, 176, 199, 202, 204, 233,
238, 243, 247, 251, 283, 291, 321,
339, 342

circles round graves, 78, 145, 151, 153, 162,

167,   200

cists, megalithic, 51, 72, 152, 165, 193, 195,
213, 237, 274, 280, 296
see also gallery graves
climate, changes in, 2, 137, 167, 288
collared flasks, 119, 126, 179-184, 190, 196,
315

combs, bone, 12, 44, 91, 272
antler bunched, 293, 324
wood, 289

comb-ornament, 109, 140, 163, 170, 204,
224, 332

Conco d’Oro culture, 234, 238, 241
Conguel (Brittany), 317, 326
copper ores, 48, 121, 127, 220, 257, 270,
276, 298, 307, 322, 336
copper trinkets, etc., 97, 113,122, 142,164,
167, 168, 180, 194, 198, 283, 290,
313

see also adzes, axes, battle-axes, daggers,
etc*

corbelling,' 23, 27, 51, 78, 80, 213, 254, 270,

307,   311, 316, 319, 327, 328

cord ornament, 71, 96, 109, 133, 145, 151,
156, 159,   160,   164,   166,   168,   179,

184, 226,   297,   309,   318,   326,   330,

332, 340

core axes, see tranchet

Cortaillod culture, 191, 244-5, 287, 288-90.

294, 303, 311, 342
cranial deformation, 156
cranian amulets, see amulets
cremation, 12, 46, 72, 109, 115, 117, 126,
165, 167,   226,   239,   256,   259,   294,

301, 306,   311,   317,   319,   325,   326,

328. 329, 337

crescentic necklaces, 79, 81, 200, 336,
338

crusted ware, 72, 91, 112, 114, 116, 125,
231, 353

Cucuteni (Romania), 136-9, 140
cursus, 317, 325

daggers, flint, 168, 184,197, 224, 246, 247,
330

metal: bronze-hilted, 130, 198, 202, 248,
298

ogival, 29, 73, 298, 334
Peschiera, 83, 243, 250
rhomboid, 297, 299

round-heeled, 79, 130, 167, 200, 228,
243, 248, 262, 264, 320, 330, 334
tanged, 36, 38, 52, 120, 154, 165, 241,
247, 320

triangular, 29, 53, 61, 235, 241, 256
unifacial, 145, 183, 271, 275, 308, 340
West European, 130, 224, 246, 258, 260,
279, 308, 318, 329
Deer Island, see Olenil Ostrovo
Dendra (Greece), 80
depas, 43, 69
diadems, 53, 283
Diana style, 233, 241, 255
Dimini culture, 63-4, 98, 112
disks, metal, bossed, 123, 143, 202, 262
amber, gold-bound, 33, 334, 336
dogs, 3, 11, 203, 208
dolmens, 181, 190, 215, 221, 269
double-axes, 25, 74, 78, 108, 184, 193, 194,
202, 262, 318
see also ingot axes
dove pendants, 25, 78, 115, 264
dolmens, 181, 190, 215, 221, 269
drill-bits, 154, 157
drums, 196

duck-vases, see zoomorphic vases

earrings, 44, 129, 278, 283, 329
earthquakes, 27, 47
El Argar (Spain), 282, 340
El Garcel (Spain), 267, 268, 283
emery, 48

Ertebolle culture, 12, 166, 177, 179, 192
Eutresis (Greece), 50, 51, 57, 68, 69, 71,
74, 76

Evans, Arthur, 21, 23, 33, 238
excised decoration, 54, 69, 94, 97, 100,
242, 300, 310, 353

face-urns, 17, 43, 46, 90, 118, 231
see also zoomorphic vases
family likeness between skeletons, 82, 219
Fatyanovo culture, 154, 168-70, 211
fayence, 25, 33, 128, 132, 147, 150, 167,
199, 238, 239, 256, 282, 298, 309,
320, 336, 339

fibulae, 83, 135, 240, 243, 250
figurines: female, clay, 17, 35, 39, 58, 61,
65, 73, 84, 87, 91, 93, 100, 112, 117,
142, 145, 244, 256, 301, 305
bone, 101, 209, 274, 278
ivory, 274
gold, 101

363
 INDEX

figurines: female, stone, 25, 39, 46, 49, 51,
69, 101, 254, 260, 268, 274, 278, 280,
325

male, 73, 101, 142, 209
filagree, 41, 154

fish-hooks, 10, 12, 37, 89, 110, 137, 206,
207

fish-traps, see weels
flake axes, see axes, tranchet
flax, 106, 108, 183, 270, 289
fluted decoration, 65, 91, 103, 140, 353
Fontbouisse (France), 308, 310
forecourts, 818, 236, 253, 259, 263, 274,
275, 325, 326, 327
forests, 1, 9, 148, 159, 177, 178
Forssander, E. J., 172, 195
Fort Harrouard (France), 304-6
fortifications, 37, 41, 46, 48, 56, 63, 67, 78,
82, 112, 118, 124, 137, 147, 230,
231, 238, 239, 249, 264, 270, 382,
291, 299, 301, 303, 304, 306, 308,
323

Fosna culture, 11

fruitstands, 17, 36, 64, 97, 111, 122, 142,
184, 186, 190, 235, 279
frying pans, 50, 52, 54, 69
funerary goddess, 236, 249, 278, 311, 313,
314, 318, 328

funnel beakers, 13, 152, 158, 166, 176,
186, 190, 340

Gali6 (Russia), 170

gallery graves, 190, 196, 198, 214, 215, 221,
226, 240, 263, 296, 306, 312, 314,
316, 318, 340
see also cists
GaraSanin, 84, 87, 89
girdle clasps, 131, 194
Globular Amphorae, 154, 158, 194-6
goats, 13, 22, 37, 106, 136, 150, 177, 248,

OQQ 90ft OOO

gold, 25, 41, 64,' 68, 70, 122, 128, 133, 142,
198, 200, 220, 223, 238, 270, 278,
283, 309, 315, 319, 322, 329, 334,
344

Goldberg (Germany), 295, 296, 299, 301
gouges, copper, 74, 154
stone, 160, 183, 208, 267
see also drill-bits

gourd models for pots, 39, 108, 110
granaries, 67, 118, 231, 267
Grand Pressigny flint, 207, 305, 306, 313,
318, 319

graphite painting, 97, 100, 103

Gudenaa culture, 13

Gumelni^a culture, 63, 96, 98-102, 143

Haba3e§ti (Romania), 137, 139, 140, 142,
143

Hagia Marina (Greece), 60, 61, 71
Hagios Kosmas (Greece), 67, 69, 72, 280
Hagios Mamas (Macedonia), 68, 71, 155
halberds, flint, 277

metal, 56, 130, 183, 201, 202, 243, 246,
282, 334, 337
hammers, metal, 29, 56

see also battle-axes; axes, perforated
stone

handles to pots: animal, 232
axe, 240, 242, 245, 255, 310
elbowed, 249

flanged, 17, 39, 70, 125,187
horned, 75, 94, 249

nose-bridge, 17, 234, 247, 249, 255, 260
thrust, 39, 66, 95
tunnel, 234, 255, 258, 300
wishbone, 17, 70, 76
see also lugs, subcutaneous
1'   , see amulets

1 ?   13, 89, 98, 111, 150, 166,

203, 289

Hawkes, C. F. C„ 281, 320
Hawkes, J., 317
hearses, 124, 125, 151
Helena, 307, 309, 310
helmets, 30, 79, 82, 132, 262
Hemp, W. J., 218, 264
Hencken, H. O., 132
henges, 317, 325, 332, 339
herring-bone masonry, 37, 66
Heurtley, W. J., 65, 76
Hissar, Tepe (Persia), 20, 77, 123, 154, 157
Hlubokd Masovky (Moravia), 113
hoards, 31, 44, 98, 109, 121, 128, 170, 198,
199, 202, 208, 211, 243, 249, 262,
293, 339
hoes, antler, 289
see also mattocks

Horgen culture, 198, 221, 263, 295-7, 310,
314, 334

horses, 46, 67, 71, 78, 79, 124, 136, 145,
150, 158, 187, 201, 235, 248, 293,
298, 299, 328
see also cavalry

houses: curvilinear, 22, 24, 67, 183, 238,
239, 249, 262, 267, 305, 308
rectilinear, 17, 26, 37, 46, 60, 63, 67, 74,
85, 89, 94, 96, 102, 106, 132, 137,
165, 180, 183, 192, 239, 282, 292,
296, 308, 323, 333
model, 60, 102, 111, 113, 138, 301
human feet to vases, 39, 97, 111, 232
Huns' Beds, 188, 192

Indo-Europeans, 27, 46, 77, 123, 127, 172,
190, 195

ingot-axes, 199, 318
torques, 125, 128-9, 133, 248, 249, 298,
301

iron, 28, 206, 264
ivory, 29, 33, 109, 271, 278

jet, 226, 271, 275, 281, 338
Jordanova culture, 103, 123, 167, 196
Jordansmuhl (Poland), see Jordanova
jugs with cut-away necks, 89, 52, 66, 263

364
 INDEX

Kakovatos (Greece), 80, 336, 339
Karanovo (Bulgaria), 84, 87, 94, 104
Khirospilia, see Levkas
kilns, potters’, 32, 43, 46, 62, 73, 74, 139
Kisapostag culture, 130, 132, 298
knives, boars’ tusk, 11, 208
Knossos (Crete), 17, 21, 26, 27, 33, 77, 81,
127, 336

Koln-Lindental (Germany), 106, 118
KolomisSina (Ukraine), 142
Koros culture, see Starievo
Kossinna, G., 172, 190, 195
Krazi (Crete), 23, 24, 51, 280
Krifievskii, E., 139, 147, 173
Kuban culture, 151-5,157,158,165,195,200
Kum Tepe (Turkey), 36, 65, 92, 116
Kuyavish graves, 188-9, 191, 195, 325

ladles, clay, 17, 96

socketed, 100, 114, 184, 186, 190, 244
Lagazzi (N. Italy), 248-9
Lagozza culture, 245, 249, 287
Laibach, see Ljubljansko
lake-dwellings, 165, 247, 248, 288, 299,
291, 295

lamps, cross-footed, see quatrefoil footed
lapis lazuli, 41, 152
lead, 25, 38, 41, 51, 68, 307, 308
leather models for pots, 39, 194, 266, 267,
287, 290, 293, 303, 305, 324
see also aslcoi

Ledro, Lago di (Italy), 248-9
Leeds, E. T„ 221
leisters (fish-spears), 9, 14, 206
Lengyel culture, 92,112-5, 123
Lerna (Greece), 67, 76, 235, 237, 254
Leubingen (Germany), 200
Levkas (Greece), 58, 69, 71, 72, 73, 76, 77
Lipari, see Aeolian Islands
Litorina Sea, 2, 204
Ljubljansko Blatt (Yugoslavia), 299
lock-rings, 44, 129, 150, 200
loom-weights, 40, 86, 96
Los MiUares (Spain), 218, 256, 270-4, 285,
306, 308, 329, 340
lugs, animal-head, 23, 64, 108

trumpet, 17, 39, 65, 66, 71, 96, 125, 233,
306, 324

see also subcutaneous string-holes,
handles

lunates, see microliths
lunulse, 247, 285, 338
Lyngby (Denmark), 7

mace-heads, cushion, 331
disk, 109, 118, 184
knobbed, 122, 139, 150
rhomboid, 207

spheroid, 10, 17, 19, 38, 99, 114, 164,
260, 266, 299
spiked, 10, 164, 208

maeander patterns, 64, 96, 98, 108, 122,
231, 242

Maglemose culture, 10-12, 116, 206, 210
Maikop (S. Russia), 151-3, 157
Marinatos, S., 24
Mariupol (Ukraine), 149, 150
Matera (S. Italy), 232
mattocks, see axes, antler
megalithic tombs, see cists, dolmens,
gallery graves, passage graves
megaton houses, 41, 63, 183
Michelsberg culture, 118, 191, 290, 291-5,
306

microliths, 4, 5, 6, 9,10, 11, 13, 96, 98, 148,
150, 152, 245, 266, 267, 269, 276
see also arrow-heads, transverse
Mikhailovka (Ukraine), 147
Mikhalic (Bulgaria), 66, 68, 69, 71, 95
Mikov, V., 94, 96
Milazzo (Sicily), 239
millet, 85, 96, 136, 150, 223, 248
Milojfiid, V., 66, 84, 87, 89, 90, 92
mines, copper, 123, 128, 247, 282, 298, 302
flint, 183, 187, 235, 293, 324, 331
Minyan ware, 46, 47, 56, 73, 75, 77, 78, 79,
92 n.

models, see animals, basketry, altars,
gourds, houses, leather, wooden
Molfetta (S. Italy), 230-2, 234
Mondsee (Austria), 247, 299
Monte Bradoni (C. Italy), 241, 246
Montelius, O., 175, 185, 198, 221, 339
moulds (for casting metal), 38, 74, 83, 123,
128, 223, 249, 299

Mycenae (Greece), 29, 33, 73, 78, 127, 135,
150, 190, 218, 219, 239, 243, 250,
256, 336, 339

Natufians, 15, 23, 54, 150
Nestor, I., 142

nets (fishing), 10, 85, 110, 111, 137, 207,
289

Nezviska (Ukraine), 110, 136, 143, 144
Northsealand, 2, 13

Novosvobodnaya (Russia), 153-4,157,195
nuraghe, 262

Obermaier, H., 221

obsidian, 17, 27, 41, 48, 56, 68, 74, 76, 87,
91, 110, 113, 122, 139, 229, 231,
234, 238, 244, 245, 254, 257
ochre, red, in graves, 6, 209, 254, 259
ochre graves, 103, 168
oculi motive, 185, 271
Oder culture, 167-8, 198
Ofnet (Germany), 4

Olenix Ostrovo (N. Russia), 150, 204, 209

olives, 22, 267

Olynthos (Macedonia), 112

Orchomenos (Greece), 69, 73

Orsi, P„ 229, 239

orthostats, 213

Ossam (Austria), 124

ostrich eggs, 271

365
 INDEX

Otzaki (Greece), 58

ovens, 37, 46, 85, 89, 137, 292, 293

ovoid vases, 151, 158, 167, 204, 210, 324

paddles, 11, 208
Paestum (Italy), 241, 256, 279
palaces, 21, 26, 37, 56, 67
palettes, 19, 53, 69
Palmella (Portugal), 223, 275, 329
Pantalica (Sicily), 240
Paris cists, 312
see gallery graves

parti-coloured pottery, 58, 65, 90, 353
passage graves, 182, 185, 193, 214, 226,
242, 269, 276, 307, 316, 328
see also tholoi, rock-cut tombs
Passek, T., 136, 147
peas, 106, 289
P&el, see Baden
Peet, T. E., 229, 240
pedestailed bowls, see fruitstands
Pericot, L., 269, 307, 309
peristalith, 181, 218
see also circles round graves
Perj&mos culture, 130, 134
Pescale (Italy), 301
Peterborough ware, 324, 332
phalli, 25, 41, 46,101, 142, 325
Phylakopi (Greece), 48, 56, 75, 81
Piggott, S., 320, 323, 324, 331
pigs, 22, 37, 85, 106, 136, 145, 150, 166,
177, 195, 201, 203, 231, 248, 289,
298, 299, 304, 323
pins: bird headed, 50, 53
bulb headed, 309

Bohemian eyelet, 132, 200, 201, 248, 298
crutch headed, 193, 297
cylinder headed, 272, 274, 278, 338
double-spiral headed, 2, 44, 50, 53, 69, 98
hammer headed, 44, 76, 151, 154, 157,
165, 166, 169, 173, 183, 186, 247
knot headed, 44, 45, 129, 132, 139, 144,
201, 298

racket headed, 129, 298, 309
trefoil headed, 298, 309
with lateral loops, 331, 334
see also fibulae
piracy, 48, 61, 238

pit caves, 27, 51, 72, 91, 156, 167, 234, 241,
301

pit-comb ware, 204-210, 332
pithos burials, see burial in jars
pit ornament, 185, 204, 324
Pittioni, R„ 125, 126, 247
Plocnik (Yugoslavia), 90, 91
ploSHadki, 137
ploughs, 187, 248
points, slotted bone, 5, 10, 207
Polada (N. Italy), 246
Poliochni (Lemnos), 36, 37, 41
pollen-analysis, 1, 13, 178, 186, 206, 210,
288

polypod bowls, 309, 337

population density, see areas, cemeteries
portals, dummy, 23, 51, 72, 326
porthole slabs, 152, 158,165,190,195, 198,
217, 237, 240, 254, 259, 273, 274,
278, 313, 314, 318, 326
Postoloprty (Bohemia), 106, 132
Puglisi, 233, 240, 307
Punto del Tonno (Italy), 243, 251
pyxides, 19, 39, 54, 66, 122, 241, 272

quadrilobate vases, see square-mouthed
quatrefoil lipped cantharoi, 33, 132, 135
quatrefoil footed bowls, 86, 156, 300
querns, 85, 108, 138, 231, 254, 266, 267

races: brachycranial, 4, 6, 72, 102, 126,
156, 227, 241, 247, 260, 279, 283,
314, 329

dolichocranial, 72, 109, 126, 171, 241,
247, 260, 283, 290, 294, 314
Lapponoid, 158, 171, 203, 209
Mongoloid, 203, 209

radio carbon dates, 9,15, 36, 109, 162, 177,
269, 281, 342

rapiers, 29, 72, 79, 82, 238, 339
rattles, 112

razors, 32, 240, 243, 250
red-slipped ware, 44, 90, 276
Remedello culture, 246-8
ribbon decoration, 17, 93, 116, 122, 242
Rinaldone culture, 126, 231, 241, 301
ring pendants, 44, 64, 91, 98, 194, 198
rings: bone, 111
stone, 260, 313
Rinyo-Clacton culture, 332-4
rivets, silver, 29, 282
lead, 38

rock-cut tombs, 24, 27, 51, 72, 78, 82, 91,
213, 215, 226, 233, 236, 239, 240,
241, 254, 258, 263, 274, 275, 281,
285, 312

see also pit-caves
rock engravings, see art
Rdssen culture, 113, 117-8, 187, 190, 290,
291, 295, 304, 315
Rouzic, Z. le, 317, 319
rural economy, 58, 86, 105-6, 136, 177-8,
295, 302, 330

rusticated ornament, 58, 64, 86, 100, 108,
230, 305, 353

sacrifices, see votive offerings

Saflund, G., 249, 250

Salcu^a culture, 91, 102-3

Saale-Warta culture, 200-2, 320, 335

“salt cellars’1, 234, 241

sandals, 274, 278

Sangmeister, 106, 108, 109

sati, see burials, double

sauceboats, 52, 70, 93

saws, 29, 74, 271, 275, 276, 282

sceptre-heads, 103, 142, 158

366
 INDEX

Schachermeyr, 112
Schliemann, H., 36, 78
Schussenried style, 293, 303
scratched ornament, 231, 244, 263, 303
sea mammals, 12, 203
seals: cylinder, 36, 44, 50, 111

stamp, clay, 36, 46, 61, 87, 88, 98, 112,
142, 232, 233, 244
stone, 25, 60
seals, see sea mammals
segmented cists, 215, 226, 240, 306, 326
Seima (N.E. Russia), 170, 212
semicircle pattern, 32, 258, 260, 290, 310,
317, 326, 340
septal stones, 215, 307
Serra d’Alto (S. Italy), 232
Servia (Macedonia), 65, 92
Sesklo culture, 58, 63, 73, 88
shaft graves, 27, 51, 56, 78, 150
Shaft Graves, see Mycenae
sheep, 7, 13, 15, 37, 85, 88 n., 106, 124, 136,
145, 150, 152, 177, 179, 201, 231,
248, 269, 289, 299, 323, 328, 332
sickles, flint armed, 27, 38, 68, 85, 108, 154,
167, 197, 231, 248, 266, 267, 299
metal, 29, 47, 135, 243, 248, 250
silver, 25, 33, 41, 51, 53, 68, 75, 146, 152,
247, 256, 257, 260, 270, 283, 320
Siret, L., 267, 270, 280
Skara Brae (Orkney), see Rinyo
skis, 208
sledges, 11, 208

sleeves for celts, antler, 4, 11, 64, 74, 86,
96, 164, 247, 288, 293, 296, 297, 299,
303 313 333

sling, use of the, 35, 38, 60, 65, 68, 84, 85,
94, 156, 230, 299
slotted bone points, see points
smelting, 68, 270, 276, 298, 299
sockets, see axes, chisels, spear-heads
SOM. (Seine-Oise-Marne) culture, 214,
312-15

spatulae, bone, 60, 85, 108, 110, 266
spear-heads, metal: Helladic, 73, 79
hook-tanged, 44, 53
socketed, 30, 132, 199, 336
tanged, 334

spectacle spirals, 123, 235
Spiennes (Belgium), 293
spindle whorls, 39, 86, 96, 125, 267, 305
spiral patterns, 32, 49, 52, 54, 64, 65, 73,
78, 87, 93, 94, 96, 98, 108, 111, 115,
142, 156, 231, 236, 242, 245, 253,
256, 328, 333

splay-footed vases, 198, 263, 296, 313, 314,
318

Spondylus shell, 61, 65, 87, 91, 97, 102,
109, 113, 123, 125, 244, 254
spools, 39, 86, 125

spouts to vases, 17, 19, 24, 43, 90, 111, 112,
233

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Re: The Dawn of European Civilization By V. GORDON CHILDE 1923
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square-mouthed vases, 232, 244, 245, 269
stamps, clay, see seals

Starcevo culture, 64, 85-8, 90, 108, 110,
136, 144, 156

statue menhirs, 250, 254, 256, 311, 312
stelae, 40, 78, 145, 150, 236
see also statue menhirs
Stentinello culture, 230-1, 233, 236, 253
Stonehenge, 331, 336, 342
Straubing (Bavaria), 130, 298
stroke-burnished decoration, 32, 36, 65,
91, 274, 278, 280

Sub-Boreal climatic phase, 2, 3, 207, 289
subcutaneous handles, 125, 231, 234, 242,
254

see also tunnel handles
Sulimirski, T., 173
suttee, English for sati, q.v.

Swiderian culture, 3, 116, 207
swords, 30, 82, 243, 250, 282, 336
Szoreg (Hungary), 131, 132

Tangaru (Romania), 96, 98
tankards, 69, 70, 76, 90, 103, 122, 132,
186, 235

Tardenoisean cultures, 5, 116, 266
teapots, 19, 95

tells, 17, 35, 36, 57, 58, 60, 85, 93, 94, 96,
89, 131, 240, 243, 248, 249, 293
temples, 217, 251, 252
terremare, 248
Teviec (France), 6, 306
Thapsos culture, 238-40, 257
Thermi (Lesbos), 36, 37-41, 49, 71, 130
tholoi, 23, 80, 215, 226, 273, 280, 375
see also corbelling, passage graves
thrones, model, 61, 91
tiles, 67

tin, 27, 38, 41, 51, 74, 83, 128, 241, 282,
308, 315, 322, 336, 344
tinetip pendants, 290, 303
Tiszapolg&r (Hungary), 120, 144
toggles, 272, 280
Tomaszdw culture, 167
Tordos (Transylvania), 89, 97, 98
Torque-bearers, 127, 129, 134, 301
Toszeg (Hungary), 130
totems, 8, 170

trade, 5, 17, 26, 38, 41, 46, 47, 49, 67, 69,
76, 80, 91, 97, 98,108,112,119, 125,
131,   139,   146,   185,   187,   195,   208,

223,   229,   234,   235,   242,   246,   254,

271,   278,   282,   293,   299,   309,   319,

336

transgressions of the sea, 2, 3, 5, 11, 182,
332, 334

Trapeza ware, 17, 19, 231
trepanation, 78, 118, 165, 227, 311, 314
trephining, see trepanation
Tripolye culture, 136-144, 147, 210
Troels-Smith, 13, 177, 191, 295
Traldebjerg (Denmark), 183
Troy, 36-47, 98, 129, 157, 235, 254, 272
tubes, bone, 38, 54, 69
tweezers, 19, 32, 53

367
 INDEX

TJnStician culture, 30, 132-5, 170, 199, 249,
283, 339, 342
Urfimis, 65, 69, 90

urnfields, 46, 103, 126, 132, 162, 167, 239,
250, 339

Usatova culture, 144-7, 158, 167

Vapheio cups, 33
vase supports, 393-4, 317
vases: ivory, 272

metal, 33, 42, 70, 75, 152, 238, 334
stone, 19, 25, 32, 60, 91, 152, 272, 275,
334

Vaufrey, R„ 268, 269
Vidra (Romania), 96, 98-104, 112, 143
Vila Nova de San Pedro (Portugal), 276,
278 279

Villafrati (Sicily), 258
Vinfia (Yugoslavia), 66, 84, 88-94, 100-1
110, 112, 126

Veselinovo (Bulgaria), 94-6, 104
Vogt, E., 288, 295, 298
votive deposits in bogs, 8, 177, 178, 185,
188

Vouga, P., 288, 289, 298
VuCedol (Yugoslavia), 91, 124, 156, 242,
299-301

Waltemienburg culture, 184, 193
wedges, antler, 4, 208
see also chisels
weels, 11, 14, 289

Weinberg, S., 54, 66

wheats: one-corn, 15, 37, 85, 94, 96, 106,
124, 136, 177, 183, 248, 289, 291,
292, 323, 328

emmer, 13, 15, 94, 96, 106, 124, 136, 177,
183, 248, 270, 289, 292, 323
hexaploid, 13, 106, 136, 177, 270, 276,
289 292

wheel, potters’, 26, 42, 46, 56, 75
wheeled vehicles, 26, 78,124, 126, 151, 154,
156, 158, 187, 190, 249
Windmill Hill culture, 323-5
wooden models for pots, 54, 75, 95, 198,
242, 249, 283, 300, 309, 337
wrist-guards, 99, 162, 168, 225, 309, 318,
330

writing, 26, 27, 77, 239, 262
Xanthudides, 5, 23

Yamno graves, 149,150-1, 157, 158, 79
Yessen, 149, 151, 154
Yortan (Turkey), 36, 38, 65
yokes, 187, 289

zinc, 139

Zlota (Poland), 112, 166
zoomorphic vases, 43, 50, 91, 115, 142, 301
see also askoi
Ziischen (Hesse), 190
Zygouries (Greece), 50, 69

368
 THE HISTORY OF
CIVILIZATION

PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY

The Earth Before History: Man’s Origin and the Origin of Life. By
Edmond Perrier, late Hon. Director of the Natural History Museum
of France. With four maps. £i 3s.

Language: a Linguistic Introduction to History. By J. Yendryes,
Professor in the University of Paris. £1 10s.

The Dawn of European Civilization. By V. Gordon Childe, D.Litt.,
D.Sc., Professor of Prehistoric Europeon Archaeology, University of
London. New edition, revised and enlarged. With 159 illustrations
and five maps. £z zs.

From Tribe to Empire: Social Organization among the Primitives and
in the Ancient East. By A. Moret, Professor in the University of
Paris, and G. Davy, University of Dijon. With 47 illustrations and
seven maps. £1 5 s.

EARLY EMPIRES

Israel, from its Beginnings to the Middle of the Eighth Century. By A.
Lods, Professor at the Sorbonne. With 16 plates, three maps, and 38
text illustrations. £1 15s.   8

The Prophets and the Rise of Judaism. By A. Lods, Professor at the
Sorbonne. With eight plates. £1 10s.

GREECE

The Greek City, and its Institutions. By G. Glotz, Professor of Greek
History in the University of Paris. £1 10s.

ROME

Primitive Italy, and the Beginnings of Roman Imperialism. By Leon
Homo, Professor in the University of Lyons. With 13 maps and
plans. £1 8s.

The Roman Spirit in Religion, Thought and Art. By A. Grenier, Pro-
fessor in the University of Strasburg. With 16 plates, and 16 text
illustrations. £1 8 s.
 Rome the Law-Giver. By J. Declareuil, Professor in the University of
Toulouse. £i 8s.

The Economic Life of the Ancient World. By J. Toutain, Director
at L’Ecole des Hautes Etudes. With six maps, £i ios.

BEYOND THE ROMAN EMPIRE

Chinese Civilisation. By Marcel Granet, Professor at the School of
Oriental Languages, Paris. With 12 plates and 5 maps. £1 15s.

The Life of Buddha, as Legend and History. By E. J. Thomas, D.Litt.,
Under Librarian in the University Library, Cambridge. With four
plates. £1 12s.

A History of Buddhist Thought. By E. J. Thomas, D.Litt. With four
plates. £1 1os.

Ancient India and Indian Civilization. By P. Masson-Oursel, H. de
Willman-Grabowska, and P. Stern. With five maps, 16 plates and
24 black and white illustrations. £1 12s.

CHRISTIANITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES

Life and Work in Medieval Europe, Y-XV Century. By P. Boissonnade,
Professor in the University of Poitiers.* Introduction by Eileen
Power, D.Litt. With eight plates. £1 ios.

Travel and Travellers of the Middle Ages. Edited by A. P. Newton,
Rhodes Professor of Imperial History in the University of London.
With eight plates and maps. £1 5s.

Chivalry : its Historical Significance and Civilizing Influence. Edited by
Edgar Prestage, Camoens Professor in the University of London.
With 24 plates. £1 3 s.

The End of the Ancient World, and the Beginnings of the Middle Ages.
By Ferdinand Lot, Professor in the University of Paris. With three
plates and three maps. £1 12s.

The Feudal Monarchy in France, and England from the Tenth to the
Thirteenth Century. By Ch. Petit-Dutaillis, Member of LTnstitut de
France. With 2 maps. £1 8s.

The Jewish World in the Time of Jesus. By Charles Guignebert,
Professor of the History of Christianity at the Sorbonne. £1 4s.